The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and stigma of leprosy amongst the community members living in Dhanusha and Parsa districts of Southern Central Nepal. A total of 423 individuals were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in Dhanusha and Parsa districts. Data was analyzed using both descriptive (frequency, percentage, median) and statistical inferences.
This K4D helpdesk report, commissioned by UK DFID, answers the question "What are the core drivers behind stereotypes, prejudice (including pity/shame etc), and harmful practices against persons with disabilities in developing countries and what promising strategies/pathways for addressing these drivers have been identified?" using desk research.
Across the world stereotypes, prejudice, and stigma contribute to the discrimination and exclusion experienced by people with disabilities and their families in all aspects of their lives. This rapid review looks at available evidence on the drivers of disability stigma in developing countries, and promising strategies for addressing these. Most of the available evidence uncovered by this rapid review comes from Sub-Saharan Africa, and is from a mix of academic and grey literature. Evidence gaps remain. The available literature has focused more on studying the victims of stigmatisation than the stigmatisers.
The qualitative study presented in this article describes the violence experienced by children with disabilities in Guinea, Niger, Sierra Leone, and Togo from the perspectives of children, community members, and disability stakeholders. The study contributes to the literature on violence against children with disabilities, which in West Africa is largely nonexistent.
A qualitative study design guided data generation with a total of 419 children, community members, and disability stakeholders. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Stakeholders shared their observations of or experiences of violence against children with disabilities in their community in interviews and focus groups
BMC Public Health 18:153 2018
- Inclusive Education in the global South? A Colombian perspective: ‘When you look towards the past, you see children with disabilities, and if you look towards the future, what you see is diverse learners
- Services for people with Communication Disabilities in Uganda: supporting a new Speech and Language Therapy profession
- Health Information-Seeking Behaviour of Visually Impaired Persons in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria
- Online Collective Identities for Autism: The Perspective of Brazilian Parents
- Transnationalizing Disability Policy in Embedded Cultural-Cognitive Worldviews: the Case of Sub-Saharan Africa
- Portrayal of Disabled People in the Kuwaiti Media
This briefing considers how stigma affects people with disabilities and why challenging stigma is a critical issue for development.
Examples of successful efforts by UK non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to reduce and eliminate stigma are briefly outlined including: self help groups; alliances between groups (including DPOs); staff training; skills training and wider awareness raising.
This literature review originated as part of an exploratory study of beggars with disabilities in Ethiopia, reported on in ILO Working Paper No. 141 published in 2013. It has been updated and is published separately here, as a contribution to debates on the social and economic inclusion of persons with disabilities, on poverty reduction and social protection. Beggars with disabilities are among the poor and disadvantaged in society. Yet they are virtually invisible in the policy agenda of countries around the world, and indeed are overlooked in advocacy efforts to improve opportunities for people with disabilities in general. This is the case, even in countries that have ratified and are moving to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The CRPD requires States to promote the right of persons with disabilities to work on an equal basis with others; and emphasises the importance of fostering respect for their rights and dignity, and raising awareness of their capabilities and contributions, as well as the need to combat prejudices and stereotype in all areas of life. Coming to an understanding of why people with disabilities end up as beggars on the streets of towns and cities around the world is important if the vision of the CRPD is to make a difference to persons with disabilities at all levels of society. It is also relevant to the discussions taking place about the adoption of a post-2015 development framework, in which poverty reduction and the promotion of decent work opportunities for all women and men are likely to feature prominently.
This document presents the link between stigma and the human rights framework as it relates to water and sanitation. The report outlines that stigma, as a deeply entrenched social and cultural phenomenon, lies at the root of many human rights violations and results in entire population groups being disadvantaged and excluded. The link between stigma and explicitly water, sanitation and hygiene is detailed, and stigma is then placed within the human rights framework considering human dignity, the human rights to water, sanitation, non-discrimination and equality, the prohibition of degrading treatment and the right to privacy. The report acknowledges that States cannot fully realise the human rights to water and sanitation without addressing stigma as a root cause of discrimination and other human rights violations
"This guide is part of a series of four Guides to reduce stigma. The guides are for all managers, health and social workers and service staff who have to deal with stigma in leprosy and other health conditions. These Guides provide evidence-based and best-practice information from different disciplines, and recommendations for field workers on how to reduce stigma against and among affected persons and in the community. This first Guide provides basic information on stigma, its causes, manifestations, and effects"
"This guide is part of a series of four Guides to reduce stigma. The guides are for all managers, health and social workers and service staff who have to deal with stigma in leprosy and other health conditions. These Guides provide evidence-based and best-practice information from different disciplines, and recommendations for field workers on how to reduce stigma against and among affected persons and in the community...The second Guide describes when and how to assess stigma using qualitative and quantitative methods and instruments. It also explains how to use the instruments"
"This guide is part of a series of four Guides to reduce stigma. The guides are for all managers, health and social workers and service staff who have to deal with stigma in leprosy and other health conditions. These Guides provide evidence-based and best-practice information from different disciplines, and recommendations for field workers on how to reduce stigma against and among affected persons and in the community...The third Guide provides recommendations on how to develop an approach for reducing stigma. Through the use of a roadmap, several steps are discussed for reducing stigma related to a particular health condition"
"This guide is part of a series of four Guides to reduce stigma. The guides are for all managers, health and social workers and service staff who have to deal with stigma in leprosy and other health conditions. These Guides provide evidence-based and best-practice information from different disciplines, and recommendations for field workers on how to reduce stigma against and among affected persons and in the community...The fourth guide explains the use of counselling at a basic level in dealing with stigma. It provides an explanation on different techniques and approaches for counselling persons affected by stigma"
"The ILEP Technical Commission (ITC) advises ILEP member associations on technical aspects of leprosy. A major review of research evidence in leprosy was published prior to the International Leprosy Congress in 2002. This current report updates that review based on research published between 2002-2009 and focuses on interventions for prevention, early diagnosis, chemotherapy, reactions, prevention of disability, stigma measurement and reduction and rehabilitation in leprosy"
Leprosy Review, Vol 81, Issue 3
This bibliography contains papers, reports and articles relating to the issue of HIV and AIDS and disability. "These papers reveal findings in relation to the impact of HIV/AIDS on people with disabilities, the disabling effects of HIV/AIDS, sexuality and disability, the attitude and stigma towards disability and interventions in different countries"
"This manuscript addresses the role and contribution of people affected by Hansen's disease (leprosy), especially through the efforts of Zen-Ryo-Kyo, the National Hansen's Disease Sanatoria Residents' Association, in changing laws and attitudes in Japan since the 1950's. Health social movements are discussed in the Japanese context and more broadly. An important contribution of this manuscript is the explanatory description of the activities of Zen-Ryo-Kyo in achieving change through addressing issues related to social stigma and discrimination"
Leprosy Review, Vol 81, Issue 1
This report analyses community awareness activities in reducing denial and stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and informing them on prevention methods. This analysis is based on a project that aimed to increase prevention and care of the disease in the trans-border region of Djibiouti, Ethiopia and Somaliland between 2006 and 2009
Using the social model of disability which promotes inclusion and positive action for disabled people, this report explores ways in which disabled people can overcome isolation from, and discrimination by, mainstream society. It discusses appropriate use of language when talking about disability issues, and gives recommendations on how the information needs of most disabled people can be met. This resource would be of interest to those working in the disability sector
Note: this publication is available on request in the following formats: braille, large print, audio, electronic format
This report examines the prevalence of hate crimes committed against disabled people in the UK. It defines the behaviour, outlines the legislation designed to alleviate occurrences and describes methods for reporting. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability, hate crimes and human rights
This publication presents the findings of research which covered over 3,500 respondents from Muslim communities across Thailand, Cambodia, Bangladesh and India (West Bengal). It is divided into 3 parts: the first part details the demographics of the study population and methodology of the research. The second part provides detailed information on the content and results of the research survey: highlighting the widespread prevalence of misconceptions about HIV transmission, and the poor understanding of key risk behaviours amongst Muslim communities; the views and opinions of Muslim communities about HIV & AIDS and the prevailing stigma and discrimination associated with HIV & AIDS and people living with HIV & AIDS; and various attitudes towards Islam and condom use, and notions of gendered responsibilities in preventing HIV & AIDS. The third part summarises the overall key findings, along with important findings in each surveyed country, and provides recommendations for future interventions based on this
"This study explored the perceptions of people affected by leprosy regarding impact of socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) on stigma-reduction. The study combined a quantitative questionnaire (the P-scale) with semi-structured interviews of 20 individual SER participants, five focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews…The authors speculate that through the pathway of improvements in economic and living conditions, SER is beginning to influence the process of social interaction, resulting in postive attitudinal change towards SER participants. The subjective opinions of interviewees suggest that improved self-esteem, positive family and community support for SER participants and increasing participation in community activities are indications of stigma-reduction"
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 18, No 2
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion