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Ghana national drug policy

Ministry of Health, Ghana
2004

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This policy includes the following sections: a situational analysis of drug selection; drug procurement, storage and distribution; drug financing; quality assurance; local manufacture of pharmaceutical and traditional medicinal products; rational drug use; global trade and pharmaceuticals; emerging diseases and pharmaceuticals; human resource development for drug management; traditional medicinal products; research and development; and implementation of the policy

Making pregnancy safer : the critical role of the skilled attendant|a joint statement by WHO, ICM and FIGO

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO), DEPARTEMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RESEARCH
INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF MIDWIVES (ICM)
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS (FIGO)
2004

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This statement advocates for skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period. The statement defines clearly who is a skilled attendant, what skills she/he should have and how she/he should be trained and supported

Guidelines on developing consumer information on proper use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

FALKENBERG,Torkel
HOK, Johanna
SCHONSTROM, Suzanna
2004

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These guidelines offer an overview of the general principles and activities necessary for the development of reliable consumer information about traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. Aimed at governments and other stakeholders, they would also be a useful reference on the information consumers need to guide them when seeking a safe and effective therapy

24 tips for culturally sensitive programming

UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
2004

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"This booklet, a companion to the publication ‘Working from Within’, colorfully presents 24 tips, one per page, for culturally sensitive programming, based on research carried out by UNFPA"

Sociocultural explanations for delays in careseeking for pneumonia

CENTRE FOR HEALTH AND POPULATION RESEARCH
December 2003

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This article is printed in the Health and Science Bulletin produced by the Centre for Health and Population Research, based in Bangladesh. It outlines research conducted among parents in Matlab, Bangladesh, revealing how their beliefs affect household treatment of childhood pneumonia and influence delays in seeking care from trained providers. Many indigenous beliefs and social factors prevent primary care providers, particularly mothers, of pneumonia cases from obtaining prompt and appropriate help. For example, in fear of being blamed for poor caring practices, mothers are reluctant to share information about the illness with other family members. Intervention strategies designed to reduce child mortality associated with pneumonia need to address the cultural beliefs and challenges. Efforts should focus on involving family members such as the child's father or grandmother in early recognition of pneumonia cases. It also suggests that health workers use local terminology and cultural knowledge to communicate the need for prompt treatment with a trained provider

Mali : traditional knowledge and the reduction of maternal and infant mortality

SANOGO, Rokia
GIANI, Sergio
November 2003

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region’s Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the high rate of maternal and infant mortality in Mali, despite interventions by the government and donors in the past ten years. It then outlines the methodology used in developing a close collaboration between the traditional system of assistance to pregnancy and childbirth (of which traditional birth assistants (TBAs) are the protagonists) and the modern system of management of obstetrical emergencies. This involved a new role for the TBAs in breaking down cultural barriers in access to modern health care. The first results appear promising, and the authors stress the importance of taking into account traditional knowledge in birthing practices when developing a national strategy for the control of maternal and infant mortality

Evaluation and utilization of traditional methods of communication in Cameroon's central, southern, eastern and extreme northern regions : case study 20

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO). Communication for Development Group
August 2003

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This study's main objectives are to evaluate traditional means of communication; to note their constraints; to select the traditional methods which can best be used for the diffusion of information and to devise a strategy for implementing the selected method of traditional communication. The methodology of this survey is based on the Active Method of Participative Research.
The study illustrates that the traditional media for communication in Cameroon are: the gong and songs accompanied by dances (in all of the surveyed provinces); the xylophone (in the center and south); griot [travelling poet] and balafon (in the east); colleagues of the traditional chiefs (Lawanes, Djaoros); and messengers of traditional chiefs or muezzins (extreme north).There are numerous constraints to using individuals in devising communications strategies: a lack of trained musicians, the lack of initiative on the part of the village elders, the disinterest of the youth, conflict among the different generations, the proliferation of modern communications technologies, the complexity of training in various methods, the possible alteration of messages, a lack of motivation and the slow speed of transmission. The study notes that the best methods for the diffusion of information in the regions surveyed in Cameroon are: the gong, the colleagues and messengers of traditional chiefs to organize village meetings in which reproductive health issues could be raised, singing and dancing, travelling poets and xylophones.
In order to devise effective strategies for conveying messages about reproductive health through these traditional methods of communication, traditional authorities must be engaged early on in the process and informed of the importance of these means of communication; qualified individuals must be identified as resources and others trained; and a training of trainers must be conducted

Tied up in a rope of sand. TFD : cultural action or development utility?

MAVROCORDATOS, Alex
2003

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Discusses the tension and synergy of culture and participatory development through examples of theatre for development experiences in Mali and Namibia. The author describes performances and processes for setting up performance activities in villages, some of which had their own forms of narrative drama, and others which developed these with external support. The article discusses the implications of importing and imposing cultural forms to achieve project goals, and contrasts this with the ethos of theatre for development, which seeks to engage community members in a dialogue with development workers in order to foster participation in and ownership of development activities

Understanding the indigenous knowledge and information systems of pastoralists in Eritrea

DINUCCI, Alessandro
FRE, Zeremariam
2003

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This case study explores pastoralists' traditional natural resources mangement practices and their sources and channels of information. It aims to contribute to the development of demand-led extension and advisory services for nomadic herders in Eritrea, on the premise that sustainable development programming builds on indigenous systems of communication and information diffusion

The cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention

SOMMA, Daryl B
KESSLER BODIANG, Claudia
2003

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This paper explores how culture can be used in various forms (theatre, music, dance, traditional medicine, and more) as a means to communicate and encourage behavior change for HIV/AIDS prevention. It highlights theater for development and collaboration with traditional healers as viable alternatives to more conventional communication and behavior change models. It presents several case studies, good practices from the field, and lessons learned. The authors' understanding of a cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention means understanding and using a community's cultural references as a framework for the design and implementation of prevention policies and programmes. Programmes that have employed this approach are characterized by their participatory approach that fosters community ownership and in turn, can result in both greater efficacy and sustainability within the community

HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Mozambique : a socio-cultural approach. Literature and institutional assessment and case studies on Manga, Sofala Province and Morrumbala District, Zambézia Province

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO)
June 2002

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This study aimed to identify cultural issues relevant to HIV and AIDS prevention and care in Mozambique; assess how organisations account for and use cultural resources in their work; assess how socio-cultural factors shape young people's behaviour relative to their sexual health and HIV and AIDS. It involved a literature review, interviews and questionnaires for NGOs and governmental organisations, and a series of case studies, which are documented in the second part of this report

Challenges of change : a tracer study of San preschool children in Botswana

LE ROUX, Willemien
February 2002

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This study of the Bokamosa Preschool Programme describes how San children, whose culture is distinct from that of other peoples of Botswana, try to cope with an education system whose values and norms are different to their own. They must also cope with pressure from their parents who mistrust a system that 'steals' their children but feel powerless to make any changes. This book discusses the many factors that influence children as they grow; and shows that if the school system is not congruent with home circumstances, children must make immense efforts to succeed

Maternal health care in rural Uganda : leveraging traditional and modern knowledge systems

MUSOKE, Maria
January 2002

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A case study of the RESCUER project, in Iganga District, Eastern Uganda. The project was designed to link the traditional rural community health providers with the formal health delivery system in a cost-effective way. The increased number of deliveries under trained personnel, and increased referrals to health units, led to a reduction of about 50 percent in the maternal mortality rate (MMR) in three years

Ancient remedies, new disease : involving traditional healers in incresing access to AIDS care and prevention in East Africa

KING, Rachel
2002

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This report presents three initiatives, in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, that have used an integrated approach to HIV prevention and treatment, combining traditional and biomedical health systems. In resource poor countries, traditional healers become part of the solution, helping provide a comprehensive response to the challenges of the disease, particularly when provided with adequate training. The report shows that implementation of programmes of this kind at larger scale could have the potential of bringing appropriate AIDS information and effective treatment to isolated communities at little cost

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