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Disability, deadly discourse, and collectivity amid Coronavirus (COVID-19)

ABRAMS, Thomas
ABBOTT, David
June 2020

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As COVID-19 crosses the globe, disabled people are subject to new medical and discursive realities. Focusing on the consequences of the latter, we utilize news reports from Canada and the UK to argue the current language of pre-existing conditions represents disability as non-life, explaining away the material realities facing disabled persons. This language ignores the distribution of care work in our societies, poverty, and other forms of exclusion facing disabled people and the population more generally. Work on ventilator users points to these existing inequalities, obscured as they may be. This story is not new. Outlining existing narratives within disability studies challenging disability as deadly biological and economic deficiency and situating the ‘pre-existing’ terminology therein, we look to work in disability studies and bioethics to challenge the disability–death equation. We end reviewing counter-narratives by and for disabled people, highlighting the ongoing and life-affirming resistance throughout the disability rights movement.

 

Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 22(1), pp.168–174.

DOI: http://doi.org/10.16993/sjdr.732

Evidence and gap map of studies assessing the effectiveness of interventions for people with disabilities in low‐and middle‐income countries

SARAN, Ashrita
WHITE, Howard
KUPER, Hannah
January 2020

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The aim of this Evidence Gap Map (EGM) is to identify, map and describe existing evidence of effectiveness studies and highlight gaps in evidence base for people with disabilities in LMICs. The map helps identify priority evidence gaps for systematic reviews and impact evaluations. The EGM included impact evaluation and systematic reviews assessing the effect of interventions for people with disabilities and their families/carers. These interventions were categorized across the five components of community‐based rehabilitation matrix; health, education, livelihood, social and empowerment. Included studies were published from 2000 onwards until January 2018. The map includes 166 studies, of which 59 are systematic reviews and 107 impact evaluation

 

Campbell Systematic Reviews, vol.16, no.1, Mar 2020

DOI: 10.1002/cl2.1070

Good practices on the implementation of the UNCRPD in Timor Leste (2015-2017)

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
DOS SANTOS, Domingos T.M.
et al
August 2019

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The 2015-2017 Advocating for Change Project (AfC), a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), aimed at promoting and advocating for rights of people with disabilities through the push for the ratification of the UNCRPD at the national level, improving quality decentralization process at the local level and promoting quality livelihood action for people with disabilities through improved and inclusive vocational training center (CNEFP) in Tibar.

One particular activity in this project is the collection and dissemination of best practices with the "Making it Work" methodology. This methodology aims to document and promote already existing best practices that adhere to the principles of UNCRPD. Making it Work utilizes a multi stakeholder approach and encourages members of DPOs and other organizations to identify best practices and effective action in and surrounding their localities. These best practices are then collected with the ultimate goal to serve as examples of embodiment of the UNCRPD for replication by organizations or institutions elsewhere.

Disability in humanitarian context: A case study from Iraq

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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This brief presents and addresses some of the challenges that prevent internally displaced persons with disabilities and other vulnerable population groups (elderly, injured persons, pregnant women, etc.) in camp settings from accessing humanitarian services in Iraq and impede on the development of an inclusive humanitarian response. Examples drawn from Handicap International’s experience working in Iraq with persons with disabilities and vulnerable population groups further illustrate those challenges. The recommendations to the humanitarian community provided in this brief aim at improving the protection of persons with disabilities and their inclusion in the humanitarian response

College for Students with Disabilities: A Guide for Students, Families, and Educators

Maryville University Online
March 2018

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Students with disabilities and their families have many pathways to achieve independence through higher education. First they need to know their rights and how to prepare for higher education.

There are many pathways to achieve independence through higher education, and Maryville University has created this helpful “Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ) to give you an idea of what to expect as you research your options.

Good practices for the implementation of the CRPD in Indonesia (2015-2017) - Making it Work

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
WIDJAYA, Hartaning
2018

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In Indonesia, the Advocacy for Change project aimed to increase the effective participation of people with disabilities in inclusive development efforts at the local level, and promote their participation in development at the national level. Specifically, the Advocacy for Change project sought to improve and monitor the people with disabilities' access to local government processes and existing social services.

Six case studies are presented:

  • Community Based Forum as Community Public Space (The culture is the key)
  • Building the Foundation of Inclusion with Sendangadi Village Government
  • WKCP (Cerebral Palsy Family Association) Health Initiative for Health Budgeting Advocacy
  • Citizen Based Forum as a Common Space to Encourage the Government to Build a Disability-Friendly Village in Mata Air Village, Kupang Tengah Sub- district, Kupang District
  • Inclusion of Disabled Persons in Noelbaki Village Women's Forum 
  • The role of disabled people organization in participation of development with Bappeda Kupang Municipality

 

Hearing aid systems in low-resource settings (Community Ear & Hearing Health, vol.15, no.19, 2018)

RICARD, Paddy
Ed
2018

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Articles in this issue are:

  • Hearing aid systems in low-resource settings
  • How hearing aids work and how to take care of them
  • The impact of hearing aid use in low and middle-income countries
  • Barriers to the use of hearing aid systems in low-and middle-income countries
  • Beyond devices: what to consider when providing hearing aids in LMICs
  • Improving access to hearing care and hearing rehabilitation in the Philippines
     

Making the SDGs count for women and girls with disabilities

UN WOMEN
July 2017

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"In line with several critical areas under thematic review at the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development in 2017, this brief underlines the need to mainstream disability into all efforts to achieve gender equality and women’s empowerment (SDG 5); highlights key issues for ending poverty (SDG 1) and ensuring healthy lives (SDG 3) for women and girls with disabilities; and calls for closing data gaps on gender and disability"

Postpartum Depression: Signs and Resources for Help

Nursing@Georgetown
July 2017

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This resource provides insights into the symptoms of postpartum depression and how to support a loved one with PPD. Also included in the article are insights on how to find providers and community groups that offer free resources. Readers can also learn what to do in crisis situations to ensure that important preventative measures are taken when needed.

Better understanding of youth mental health

The Lancet
April 2017

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Mental health issues are the leading cause of disability in adolescents aged 15–19 years in all the world's regions, contributing 45% of their overall burden of disease. Early intervention to prevent mental health disorders is crucial to suicide prevention and to improve lifelong wellbeing. In April 2017, Mission Australia, in association with the Black Dog Institute (a research institute based in New South Wales) published the 5th Youth Mental Health Report. A survey of 21 000 Australian adolescents recorded 22·8% of young Australians meeting the criteria for probable serious mental illness (PSMI), as assessed by the Kessler 6 measure of non-specific psychological distress. Adolescent girls were almost twice as likely than boys to meet the criteria for PSMI. A significantly higher proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander responders met the criteria for PSMI (31·6%)  than non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31140-6

Vol. 389, No. 10080, p1670, 29 April 2017

 

Counting disability: emerging consensus on the Washington Group questionnaire

GROCE, Nora
MONT, Daniel
2017

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The issuing of a statement by the Interagency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Indicators in Geneva, a group of leading UN agencies, civil society actors, and independent experts strongly supporting the Washington Group on Disability Statistics’ Short Set of Questions (WGSS) is noted and a short explanation of the questions is provided.

 

The Lancet Global Health VOLUME 5, ISSUE 7, PE649-E650, JULY 01, 2017

https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30207-3

Disability Data Collection in Community-based Rehabilitation

Sunil Deepak
Francesca Ortali
Geraldine Mason Halls
Tulgamaa Damdinsuren
Enhbuyant Lhagvajav
Steven Msowoya
Malek Qutteina
Jayanth Kumar
December 2016

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Today there are Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR) programmes in a large number of countries. In many countries, the CBR approach is a part of the national rehabilitation services. However, there is a lack of reliable data about persons with disabilities who benefit from CBR and the kind of benefits they receive.

 

This article reviews the disability data collection systems and presents some case studies to understand the influence of operational factors on data collection in the CBR programmes.

 

The review shows that most CBR programmes use a variable number of broad functional categories to collect information about persons with disabilities, combined occasionally with more specific diagnostic categories. This categorisation is influenced by local contexts and operational factors, including the limitations of human and material resources available for its implementation, making it difficult to have comparable CBR data.

 

Therefore, any strategies to strengthen the data collection in CBR programmes must take these operational factors into account.

 

Building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Roxanne Keynejad
Maya Semrau
Mark Toynbee
Sara Evans-Lacko
Crick Lund, Oye Gureje
Sheila Ndyanabangi
Emilie Courtin
Jibril O. Abdulmalik
Atalay Ale
Abebaw Fekadu
Graham Thornicroft
Charlotte Hanlo
October 2016

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Background

Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review.

Results

Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors.

Conclusions

This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed quantitative and qualitative approaches.

The political economy of financial inclusion: tailoring donor policy to fit

DEVELOPMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
September 2016

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"Financial inclusion has recently become a globally acclaimed policy objective. This provokes the need to review policy in this sector, particularly in light of the tensions that arise between donor approaches founded on market modernism and governments with more activist leanings. This is done here in the context of efforts to move donor development policy beyond ‘best practice’ institutional blue-prints to those which are ‘good enough’, which seek to understand underlying political economy dynamics in order to find space to engage with governments. In doing so, it is argued that there is scope for ‘working with the grain’ and harnessing the political economy of government policy in order to produce financial inclusion outcomes." 

Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus

KINDHAUSER, Mary Kay
ALLEN Tomas
FRANK Veronika
SANTHANAA Ravi Shankar
DYE Christopher
September 2016

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The temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are described following an extensive literature search. During this period a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). The paper concludes that the Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities

 

Detecting Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus using systems developed for polio surveillance

KANDEL, Nirmal
LAMICHHANE Jaya
TANGERMANN Rudolf
RODIEA Guenael
September 2016

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With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of  Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.

OPERA

Center for Economic and Social Rights
July 2016

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CESR has developed a simple, yet comprehensive four-step framework to analyze various aspects of the obligation to fulfill economic and social rights. Adopting the acronym OPERA, the framework incorporates different measures for specific human rights principles and standards,by framing them around four levels of analysis: Outcomes, Policy Efforts, Resources and Assessment.

A guiding lens for CESR's national enforcement work, the OPERA framework allows an assessment that triangulates outcomes, policies and resources to provide a much fuller picture of what a state is doing to promote the realization of specific rights. Importantly, it traces economic and social deprivations and disparities back to the actions or omissions of the state, to make the case that they constitute an injustice and a violation of human rights.

Impact area overview: the right to inclusive quality education

PLAN INTERNATIONAL
July 2016

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A review by Plan International of their work in the area of inclusive education is presented. Rights associated with inclusive education, education targets in SDGs and global education intitatives and trends are outlined. Issues associated with inclusive education implementation and what needs to be done are discussed. The experience, standards, priorities and strategies and advocacy of Plan International are reported.

Living in hell : abuses against people with psychosocial disabilities in Indonesia

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH (HRW)
March 2016

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This article with a video is related to a report examining the abuses—including pasung—that persons with psychosocial disabilities face in the community, mental hospitals, and various other institutions in Indonesia, including stigma, arbitrary and prolonged detention, involuntary treatment, and physical and sexual violence. It also examines the government’s shortcomings in addressing these problems.

Based on research across the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra, Human Rights Watch documented 175 cases of persons with psychosocial disabilities in pasung or who were recently rescued from pasung. 

 

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