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Looking under the veil: Challenges faced by people with disabilities in cross-border entrepreneurship

MATSAURE, Keresencia
CHINDIMBA, Agness
ZIMANO, Felistas R
RUFFIN, Fayth
September 2020

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Background: Cross-border entrepreneurship is one source of livelihood that is transforming people’s lives, especially those with limited resources and educational qualifications and those in need of supplementary earnings to complement meagre formal earnings. However, despite strides made to make this avenue worthwhile, this Zimbabwean study shows that hidden hindrances still persist from procedural and structural barriers from road entry point management systems. To people with disabilities (PWDs), the impact of these hidden barriers is severe to the extent of obstructing their optimum progression into cross-border entrepreneurship.

 

Objectives: This article sought to interrogate some veiled challenges in border management systems affecting PWDs’ quest to venture into cross-border entrepreneurship. This angle has, to this end, been timidly addressed as most organisations and legislation have concentrated on making things work for the majority of the populace.

 

Method: Qualitative phenomenological method in which researchers’ lived experiences, review of literature, ideas and opinions is complemented by secondary survey data from a road entry point management system study in the Zimbabwean setting.

 

Results: Cross-border entrepreneurship has potential to transform people’s lives: 1) road and border management systems’ procedural and structural complications present hidden challenges impeding PWDs’ entry and optimum participation in cross border entrepreneurship, 2) people with disabilities are not automatically dependents; in fact, most have dependents looking up to the, 30 social construction of disability persists and must be curbed and 4) there is a need to institute a ‘stakeholders triad approach’.

 

Conclusion: The existing road entry points’ management systems are not informed by considerations from PWDs, hence the existence of hidden challenges. Cross-border entrepreneurship can open significant livelihood avenues to PWDs. A stakeholders ‘triad-approach’, proposed herein, can solve some of the policy discrepancies as it recommends utilising inputs from PWDs, research and policy-makers.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020 

Voices of people with disabilities during the COVID19 outbreak

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
May 2020

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A collection of stories from people with various disabilities across the globe sharing their experiences with the COVID-19 outbreak and pandemic risk reduction strategies implemented by their governments. Some stories are written by IDA and some are external.

Examples are:

  • How absence of transport can be fatal: A Story from Uganda
  • In Uganda, a Deaf man loses his leg after being shot during curfew
  • Voices of Mexico: Disability and COVID-19 | Voces de Mexico: Discapacidad y COVID-19
  • COVID-19 in Mexico: the experience of deafblind children told by their mothers (Espanōl)
  • Reaching Persons with Deafblindness
  • COVID-19 and The Forgotten People (Indonesia)
  • When accessible information is far from a reality: Zimbabwe during COVID-19
  • The experience of a blind woman in Kenya under COVID-19 outbreak
  • Being a single mother of two persons with disabilities under COVID-19 (South Africa)
  • Autistic students in South Africa: how has their life changed?
  • The Story of Rose Rokiatou: COVID-19 Pandemic and Financial Vulnerability of Persons with Disability in Mali
  • COVID-19 in Romania: Life-threatening situations reported
  • COVID-19 in Nepal: What are the challenges for indigenous persons with disabilities?
  • COVID-19 in India : Technology can be your best friend or worst enemy

Making cash inclusive in humanitarian responses

David Brown
Manuel Rothe
April 2020

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The use of cash and vouchers as part of humanitarian responses has increased significantly over the past decade. It is a commitment in the Grand Bargain between some of the world’s largest donors and humanitarian organisations, which aims to get more means into the hands of people in need. Disability inclusion has also become a key part of international humanitarian frameworks, such as the Charter on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action. While provision of cash is a way to allow aid to take a form which responds to the real needs of people affected by disasters, barriers remain to the participation of persons with disabilities in such schemes

Summary Report. LEAVE NO CHILD BEHIND Invest in the early years

WALKER, Jo
BABOO, Nafisa
September 2019

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A summary overview of the findings of a study led by LIGHT FOR THE WORLD with its partners, supported by the Early Childhood Program of the Open Society Foundations. The aim of the study was to uncover the trends in aid for inclusive Early Child Development (ECD) for 2017. It further identified strategic commitments to ECD, as reflected in policy documents up until 2019. The research examined donors’ spending and commitments in three key areas: early childhood development; inclusive early education and pre-primary; and disability-inclusive early childhood development investments in the sectors of health, nutrition, education and sanitation.

 

This study presents a baseline on donor investment in ECD services in low- and middle-income countries for the children who are traditionally left behind. It draws lessons from six bilateral donor countries – Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) – as well as the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), European Union (EU) Institutions, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank. Donor advocacy briefs for each of these donors are provided.

 

The study focuses on donor contributions to scaling up ECD services in four African countries: Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe

Disability and disaster risk reduction as an incongruent matrix: Lessons from rural Zimbabwe

LUNGA, Wilfred
BONGO, Paradzavi Pathias
VAN NIEKERK, Dewald
MUSARURWA, Charles
April 2019

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This research paper focuses on two key topics in the disaster science field: pre-disaster risk reduction planning and post-disaster emergency response activities. It is based on experiences from disaster risk reduction projects in Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe between 2006 and 2014. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, observations and focus group discussions. Both able-bodied people and people living with disabilities (PWDs) were part of the study.

 

Jamba. (Journal of disaster risk studies) 2019; 11(1): 648.

doi: 10.4102/jamba.v11i1.648

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

2019

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This journal volume includes:

  • 33 research articles
  • 2 review articles
  • an opinion paper
  • a case study
  • two book reviews

Additionally there is a special collection of 3 papers concerned with the Role of Assistive Technology.

Pastoral ministry and persons with disabilities: The case of the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe

SANDE, Nomatter
2019

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Background: The Persons with Disability (PWD) are the minority group dehumanized in the church. The subject of disability is complicated because of the impact of the Judeo-Christian teachings. The Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM) in Zimbabwe is a leading Pentecostal church with a pastoral ministry theology which emphasises divine healing, miracles, signs and wonders. Thus, the space of PWD and how the PWD either connects or benefits from this Pentecostal heritage is a critical gap in this study.

 

Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the construction of disability through the practices and processes of the pastoral ministry in the AFM.

 

Method: This study followed qualitative research and used the social model of disability as theoretical framework. The data were collected from 26 participants who are PWD and pastors using in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observations.

 

Results: The results showed the AFM pastoral practices created invisible barriers that militate against PWD. Thus, the pastoral ‘divine solutions’ and ‘triumphalist messages and teachings’ are ‘prescriptive’ and ineffective in reducing ‘the plight of PWD in Zimbabwe’.

 

Conclusion: The study concludes that the pastoral ministry should be ‘one efficient vehicle’ with which the church can care for and ‘transform persons with disabilities’. Pastors should break the glass ceiling by expecting pastors to minister better and more effectively creating a safe space for persons with disabilities. A caring community should be the nature of both the AFM and the pastoral ministry responsible for meeting the needs of the persons with disabilities.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

2030 Agenda for sustainable development: Selected SDG indicators disaggregated by disability status

WASHINGTON GROUP ON DISABILITY STATISTICS
October 2018

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In light of the importance of disability data collection and the disaggregation of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) outcome indicators by disability status, the Washington Group on Disability Statistics (WG) undertook an exercise to review, among WG member countries, the extent to which data on SDG indicators currently available can be disaggregated by disability status. Requests for disaggregated SDG data for 13 selected indicators were sent to 146 member countries. 48 countries responded and 39 provided data. Response data is tabulated and discussed.

Global AgeWatch Insights. The right to health for older people, the right to be counted

ALBONE, Rachel
et al
2018

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This report considers the progress being made to achieve older people's right to health amid the global drive towards universal health coverage. It explores how older people are currently accessing health services and what changes need to be made to improve on this. It considers the role of data in driving and informing changes to health systems and the services they deliver. Data must be collected with and about older people to ensure adequate evidence for service design and delivery that is targeted and appropriate. This report explores the adequacy of current data systems and collection mechanisms and how, alongside health systems, they must be adapted in an ageing world. 

 

This report is supported by 12 country profiles (for Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Kenya, Lebanon, Moldova, Myanmar, Pakistan, Serbia, Tanzania, Vietnam and Zimbabwe; see Appendix 1). These provide national information on trends in the physical and mental health status of older people, and population-level information on access to UHC. The profiles are supplemented by data mapping, showing the national data available on older people’s health in the 12 profile countries, and revealing the data gaps. The data mapping results are available at www.GlobalAgeWatch.org.

Everybody Matters: Good practices for inclusion of people with disabilities in sexual and reproductive health and rights programmes

Van SLOBBE, Caroline
November 2017

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This publication provides introductory chapters from two activists who work to create better opportunities for people with disabilities in Nigeria and India. Subsequently, the challenges that organisations worldwide have encountered whilst improving the access to and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and rights for people with disabilities are presented. Ways in which they managed to find solutions and the results achieved are reviewed. Some cases show the importance of a more personal approach whilst others emphasise the advantage of changing systems and policies. Different regions, types of disabilities and various SRHR-topics are reflected in these stories. All cases provide lessons learnt that contribute to a set of recommendations for improved responses. The closing chapter highlights the challenges, solutions, and ambitions that are presented and lead up to a concise overview of recommendations.  

Good practice examples include:

A shift in SRH programming (Nepal)

Breaking Barriers with performance art (Kenya)

Her Body, Her Rights (Ethiopia)

People with disabilities leading the way (Israel Family Planning Association)

Best Wishes for safe motherhood (Nepal)

It’s my body! (Bangladesh)

Calling a spade a spade (Netherlands)

Four joining forces (Colombia)

Change agents with a disability (Zimbabwe)

Tito’s privacy and rights (Argentina)

Sign language for service providers (Kenya)

Psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive community settings: An exploratory study

MPOFU, Jabulani
SEFOTHO, Maximus M.
MAREE, Jacobus G.
2017

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Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive community settings of Makonde Urban in Zimbabwe. An inclusive community is one that aims to remove exclusionary practices within the community and promote community systems that accept all people irrespective of their difference. Inclusive communities on their own are not uniquely designed for people with disabilities, but most developing countries have adopted them as a basic strategy to influence and enhance psychological well-being of people with disabilities.


Methods: A constructivist lived experience perspective underpinned this research, in which multiple case studies were used to interact with the participants on inclusion and psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities. Purposive sampling was used to select 14 participants (9 males and 5 females). Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and transcribed verbatim. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis of data sources.


Results: It was found that participants who were adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive community settings of Makonde Urban in Zimbabwe were having high levels of autonomy and choice, purpose in life, positive relations with others and good personal growth and self-acceptance.


Conclusion: The findings of this study should enable inclusive communities’ policy-makers and researchers to better understand the psychological well-being of adolescents with physical disabilities living in inclusive communities.

Challenges faced by women with disabilities in accessing sexual and reproductive health in Zimbabwe: The case of Chitungwiza town

Tafadzwa RUGOHO,
France MAPHOSA
2017

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Background: Women with disabilities in Zimbabwe face numerous challenges in accessing sexual and reproductive health. Cultural belief still regards them as not sexually active. The government has also failed to promote policies that facilitate access to sexual and reproductive services by women with disabilities.


Objectives: The reseach objectives were to explore the challenges faced by women with disabilities in accessing sexual and reproductive health in Zimbabwe.


Method: The data were gathered using in-depth interviews with 23 purposively selected respondents. Thirteen women had physical disabilities, five were visually impaired, three were deaf and two were stammering. The respondents with physical disabilities were using wheelchairs, walking frames, prosthesis, crutches and caliper shoes. The participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 45 years. All interviews were transcribed and translated verbatim into English, and passages were extracted from the transcripts. Key themes and concepts were identified and coded to offer a rich framework for analysis, comparisons and presentation of the data.


Results: Negative perceptions of health personnel towards people with disabilities, disability-unfriendly infrastructure at health facilities and absence of trained personnel for people with disabilities (sign language) are some of the challenges involved.
Conclusion: The government, in partnership with other stakeholders, should address challenges faced by women with disabilities when accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Non-government, private hospitals and profit-making organisations should join hands with government in funding health requirements for women with disabilities.

Exploring structural violence in the context of disability and poverty in Zimbabwe

MUDEREDZI, Jennifer T.
EIDE, Arne H.
BRAATHEN, Stine H.
STRAY-PEDERSEN, Babill
2017

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Background: While it is widely assumed that disability, poverty and health are closely linked, research falls short of fully understanding the link. One approach to analysing the links between disability and poverty is through the concept of structural violence, referring to social structures that contribute to the impoverishment of individuals or communities. These structures can be political, ecological, legal and economic, among others.


Objective: To explore structural violence and how it affects families of children with cerebral palsy among the Tonga ethnic group living in poor rural communities of Binga in Zimbabwe.


Method: This is a longitudinal, qualitative and ethnographic study. Data were collected over a period of eight years from 2005 to 2013. Data collection techniques were in-depth interviews, participant observation and focus group discussions. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 53 informants.


Results: Structural violence was noted through four themes: internal displacement and development, food and politics, water and sanitation, and social services. Poverty was noted in the form of unemployment, lack of education, healthcare, food and shelter. The concept of structural violence inflicted social suffering on the informants. Politics played a major role in activities such as food withdrawal, lack of water, development and allocation of local resources to ‘the people of the city’, leaving the informants struggling with care.

 

Conclusion: Political and economic forces have structured risks and created a situation of extreme human suffering. The capabilities approach brings out the challenges associated with cerebral palsy in the context of development challenges.

DFID data disaggregation action plan - Better data for better lives

UK DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
UK AID
January 2017

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This action plan sets out the steps that the UK Department for International Development (DFID) will take to promote, provide and make use of their own development and humanitarian programme data which can be disaggregated on the basis of sex, age, disability status and geography (in the short term). It also has the objective to build the culture within DFID on disaggregated data, and to work with others to change the international development system on disaggregated data. A review is scheduled for 2020. Working with partners, influencing, capacity building and management information, research, analysis and reporting are outlined. Trailblazer country programmes with Bangladesh, Nepal, Zimbabwe and Rwanda are reported.

Perceived burden of care and reported coping strategies and needs for family caregivers of people with mental disorders in Zimbabwe

MARIMBE, Bazondlile D
COWAN, Frances
KAJAWU, Lazarus
MUCHIRAHONDO, Florence
LUND, Crick
2016

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Background: Mental health service resources are inadequate in low-income countries, and families are frequently expected to provide care for their relative with a mental disorder. However, research on the consequences of care giving has been limited in low-income countries, including Zimbabwe.


Objective: The study explored the perceived impact of mental illness, reported coping strategies and reported needs of family members of persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder or schizophrenia attending a psychiatric hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe.


Methods: A purposive sample of 31 family members participated in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions using standardized study guides. Participants were also screened for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) using the 14-item Shona Symptom questionnaire (SSQ). Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16) was used for quantitative data analysis.


Results: Caregivers experienced physical, psychological, emotional, social and financial burden associated with care giving. They used both emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies depending on the ill family members’ behaviours. Seeking spiritual assistance emerged as their most common way of coping. Twenty one (68%) of the caregivers were at risk of CMD and were referred to a psychiatrist for further management. Caregivers required support from health care professionals to help them cope better.


Conclusion: Caregivers carry a substantial and frequently unrecognized burden of caring for a family member with mental disorder. Better support is needed from health professionals and social services to help them cope better. Further research is required to quantitatively measure caregiver burden and evaluate potential interventions in Zimbabwe.
 

Impact of structured wheelchair services on satisfaction and function of wheelchair users in Zimbabwe

VISAGIE, Surona
MLAMBO, Tecla
VAN DER VEEN, Judith
NHUNZV, Clement
TIGERE, Deborah
SCHEFFLER, Elsje
2016

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Background: Providing wheelchairs without comprehensive support services might be detrimental to user satisfaction and function.

 

Objectives: This paper compares wheelchair user satisfaction and function before and after implementation of comprehensive wheelchair services, based on the World Health Organization guidelines on wheelchair service provision in less resourced settings, in Zimbabwe.

 

Method: A pre- and post-test study with a qualitative component was done. Quantitative data were collected with the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and the ‘Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair Questionnaire’. Data were collected from 55 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who received a new wheelchair in the study period. Qualitative data were collected through two audio recorded focus groups and two case studies and are presented through narrative examples.

 

Results: The proportion of adult users who were satisfied significantly increased for all wheelchair and service delivery aspects (p = 0.001 - 0.008), except follow-up (p = 0.128). The same was true for children’s post-test ratings on all variables assessed (p = 0.001 - 0.04), except training in the use of the device (p = 0.052). The biggest improvement in satisfaction figures were for comfort needs (44.3%), indoor mobility (43.2%), outdoor mobility (37.2%), safe and efficient, independent operation (33.5%) and transport (31.4%). The qualitative data illustrated user satisfaction with wheelchair features and services.

 

Conclusion: The wheelchair service programme resulted in significant positive changes in user satisfaction with the wheelchair, wheelchair services and function. It is recommended that the Zimbabwean government and partner organisations continue to support and develop wheelchair services along these guidelines.

How CBM Australia supports engagement with government for disability inclusion and prevention

CBM AUSTRALIA
March 2016

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CBM Australia engages both directly and indirectly with governments. Indirectly, CBM Australia supports other organisations, for instance disabled people’s organisations or civil society organisations to engage with governments. This report looks at the different ways that CBM partners seek influence government and promote sustainability. It considers the different roles and relevance of activism, advocacy, service delivery and advisory approaches.

 

The cases in this report were identified and gathered through semi-structured interviews with CBM’s Program Officers, Technical Advisors, regional/country office and project staff in-country, as well as drawing on reports and evaluations. The report starts with a section explaining the four different approaches to working with government, followed by a brief introduction to each approach, highlighting what CBM are doing and the key lessons learned. Each section is followed by case studies giving more detailed insight into how CBM are engaging, key achievements, challenges and the lessons learned. Fifteen case studies covering key projects from CBM Australia’s International Programs and the Inclusive Development Team are described in this report.

Enabling education review, issue 4

ENABLING EDUCATION NETWORK
December 2015

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This newsletter contains a variety of articles about inclusive education in several countries around the world. The topics focus mostly on funding, managing and sustaining inclusive education; engaging and empowering beneficiaries in finding solutions; facilitating parental and child involvement and early childhood education

Enabling Education Review, issue 4

Is any wheelchair better than no wheelchair? A Zimbabwean perspective

VISAGIE, Surona
MLAMBO, Tecla
VAN DER VEEN, Judith
NHUNZVI, Clement
TIGERE, Deborah
SCHEFFLER, Elsje
2015

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Background: Within a rights-based paradigm, wheelchairs are essential in the promotion of user autonomy, dignity, freedom, inclusion and participation.

 

Objectives: This paper aimed to describe a group of Zimbabwean wheelchair users’ satisfaction with wheelchairs, wheelchair services and wheelchair function.

 

Method: A mixed method, descriptive study was done. Quantitative data was collected from 94 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who accessed wheelchair services at 16 clinics in five Zimbabwean provinces between October 2013 and February 2014, using the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected through two focus group discussions (22 participants) and two case studies with participants purposively sampled from those who participated in the quantitative phase.

 

Results: More than 60% of participants were dissatisfied with the following wheelchair features: durability (78.6%), weight (75.6%), ease of adjustment (69.1%), effectiveness (69.0%), safety (66.7%), reliability (66.7%), and meeting user needs (60.6%). Similarly, more than 66% of participants were dissatisfied with various services aspects: professional services (69.0%), follow-up (67.0%), and service delivery (68.3%). Although 60% of participants agreed that the wheelchair contributed to specific functions, more than 50% of participants indicated that the features of the wheelchair did not allow in- (53.2%) and outdoor (52.7%) mobility.

 

Conclusion: Findings indicate high levels of dissatisfaction with wheelchair features and services, as well as mobility. It is recommended that policy and minimum service standards which incorporate evidence and good practice guidelines for wheelchair services and management of wheelchair donations are developed for Zimbabwe.

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