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Summary Report. LEAVE NO CHILD BEHIND Invest in the early years

WALKER, Jo
BABOO, Nafisa
September 2019

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A summary overview of the findings of a study led by LIGHT FOR THE WORLD with its partners, supported by the Early Childhood Program of the Open Society Foundations. The aim of the study was to uncover the trends in aid for inclusive Early Child Development (ECD) for 2017. It further identified strategic commitments to ECD, as reflected in policy documents up until 2019. The research examined donors’ spending and commitments in three key areas: early childhood development; inclusive early education and pre-primary; and disability-inclusive early childhood development investments in the sectors of health, nutrition, education and sanitation.

 

This study presents a baseline on donor investment in ECD services in low- and middle-income countries for the children who are traditionally left behind. It draws lessons from six bilateral donor countries – Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) – as well as the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), European Union (EU) Institutions, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank. Donor advocacy briefs for each of these donors are provided.

 

The study focuses on donor contributions to scaling up ECD services in four African countries: Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe

Resources for business owners with disabilities

GRAVER, Sarah
February 2019

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A USA based blog providing a guide for entrepreneurs and business owners with disabilities. It includes information on business plans, marketing strategies, funding, training and networking. The US PASS (Plan to Achieve Self-Support) program and the requirements for it are outlined. There is a list of resources for people living with specific disabilities who are interested in self-employment including people with visual, hearing, developmental and mobility disabilities.

Mobility Analysis of AmpuTees (MAAT 4): classification tree analysis for probability of lower limb prosthesis user functional potential

WURDEMAN, Shane R
STEVENS, Phillip M
CAMPBELL, James H
2019

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Purpose: 

To develop a predictive model to inform the probability of lower limb prosthesis users’ functional potential for ambulation.

 

Materials and Methods: 

A retrospective analysis of a database of outcomes for 2770 lower limb prosthesis users was used to inform a classification and regression tree analysis. Gender, age, height, weight, body mass index adjusted for amputation, amputation level, cause of amputation, comorbid health status and functional mobility score [Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M™)] were entered as potential predictive variables. Patient K-Level was used to assign dependent variable status as unlimited community ambulator (i.e., K3 or K4) or limited community/household ambulator (i.e., K1 or K2). The classification tree was initially trained from 20% of the sample and subsequently tested with the remaining sample.

 

Results: 

A classification tree was successfully developed, able to accurately classify 87.4% of individuals within the model’s training group (standard error 1.4%), and 81.6% within the model’s testing group (standard error 0.82%). Age, PLUS-M™ T-score, cause of amputation and body weight were retained within the tree logic.

 

Conclusions: 

The resultant classification tree has the ability to provide members of the clinical care team with predictive probabilities of a patient’s functional potential to help assist care decisions.

Adding meaning to physical fitness test results in individuals with intellectual disabilities

OPPEWAL, Alyt
HILGENKAMP, Thessa I M
February 2019

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Purpose: Evaluating physical fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) is challenging, and a multitude of different versions of tests exist. However, psychometric properties of these tests are mostly unknown, and both researchers as clinical practitioners struggle with selecting appropriate tests for individuals with ID. We aim to present a selection of field tests with satisfactory feasibility, reliability, and validity, and of which reference data are available.

 

Methods: Tests were selected based on (1) literature review on psychometric properties, (2) expert meetings with physiotherapists and movement experts, (3) studies on population specific psychometric properties, and (3) availability of reference data. Tests were selected if they had demonstrated sufficient feasibility, reliability, validity, and possibilities for interpretation of results.

 

Results: We present a basic set of physical fitness tests, the ID-fitscan, to be used in (older) adults with mild to moderate ID and some walking ability. The ID-fitscan includes tests for body composition (BMI, waist circumference), muscular strength (grip strength), muscular endurance (30 second and five times chair stand), and balance (static balance stances, comfortable gait speed).

 

Conclusions: The ID-fitscan can be used by researchers, physiotherapists, and other clinical practitioners to evaluate physical fitness in adults with ID. Recommendations for future research include expansion of research into psychometric properties of more fitness tests and combining physical fitness data on this population in larger datasets.

2018 Annual Disability Statistics Compendium

THE REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTER ON DISABILITY AND DEMOGRAPHICS (StatsRRTC)
January 2019

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The Annual Disability Statistics Compendium and its complement, the Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, are summaries of statistics about people with disabilities and about the government programs which serve them. The Compendium, available both in hard copy and online (at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org) presents key overall statistics on topics including the prevalence of disability, employment among persons with disabilities, rates of participation in disability income and social insurance programs, as well as other statistics. The Annual Disability Statistics Supplement, only available online (also at https://www.disabilitycompendium.org), presents tables with over 150 additional categorizations of data for each section highlighted in the Compendium. The 2018 Annual Disability Compendium and Supplement were reviewed and updated for accessibility this year. 

 

A companion Annual Report is available, providing graphic representations of key findings. The Annual Report highlights trend data related to specific tables in the Compendium and Supplement

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2019, Vol. 6 No. 1 - Special issue: Disability and the Decolonial Turn: Perspectives from the Americas

2019

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Articles included are:

  • Editorial: Disability and the Decolonial Turn: Perspectives from the Americas
  • Disability, Decoloniality, and Other-than-Humanist Ethics in Anzaldúan Thought
  • Decolonizing Schools: Women Organizing, Disability Advocacy, and Land in Sāmoa
  • Adapting an Education Program for Parents of Children with Autism from the United States to Colombia
  • Globalized Food and Pharma: The South Bites Back in Lina Meruane’s Fruta podrida
  • Decolonial Embodiment: Fanon, the Clinical Encounter, and the Colonial Wound
  • Precarious Bodies, Precarious Lives: Framing Disability in Alejandro González Iñárritu’s Cinema
  • Literary Fiction Under Coloniality and the Relief of Meditation in Guadalupe Nettel’s Desupés del invierno, Carla Faesler’s Formol and Laía Jufresa’s ‘La pierna era nuestro altar’

 

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2019, Vol. 6 No. 2

2019

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Articles included are:

  • A comparison of disability rights in employment: Exploring the potential of the UNCRPD in Uganda and the United States
  • Reimagining personal and collective experiences of disability in Africa
  • Social participation and inclusion of ex-combatants with disabilities in Colombia
  • ‘Inclusive education’ in India largely exclusive of children with a disability
  • Participation, agency and disability in Brazil: transforming psychological practices into public policy from a human rights perspective

A comparison of disability rights in employment: Exploring the potential of the UNCRPD in Uganda and the United States

OJOK, Patrick
GOULD, Robert
2019

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The disability employment policy systems in the US and Uganda are compared, and areas identified to improve implementation by examining the broader socio-cultural contexts that have shaped disability policy and practices of the two countries over time. Using the United Nations Conventions on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) as the overarching analytical framework, the analysis is framed within the discussion of the right to employment, as both countries are recognized for policy advances in this domain, but continue to experience low labor market participation for persons with disabilities. It identifies three critical areas that impact the realisation of disability rights in each context: ideological frameworks; hiring and retention initiatives; and state level supports. Ultimately, it considers the limitations of the rights based framework for actualising employment rights in the context of limited state and individual resources. 

 

Disability and the Global South, 2019, Vol.6, No. 2

 

Adapting an education program for parents of children with autism from the United States to Colombia

MAGANA, Sandy
TEHERO HUGHES, Marie
SALKAS, Kristen
MORENO ANGARITA, Marisol
2019

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One of the lingering aspects of coloniality in the Americas is paternalism. In Latin America, this power structure plays out among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through beliefs that people with disabilities need to be protected and guarded at home, and that they are unable to learn and function in society. We developed a program to empower parents of children with ASD through peer education to help their children realize their potential. This program was implemented in the United States (US) for Latino immigrant families and then adapted for use in Bogotá, Colombia. In this paper, we discuss some of the ways the manifestations of colonialism have influenced the adaptation of this program from North to South. For example, in Colombian society it is not common to use non-professionals or peers to deliver scientific information because within a paternalistic society there is ‘respeto’ (respect) for persons who are older, male and have credentials. Therefore, promoting the use of peer-mothers in this context was a challenge in the adaptation that warranted compromise. We explore and discuss similarities and differences in the adaptation and delivery between North and South and problematize the idea of Latinos in the US versus Colombia.

 

Disability and the Global South, 2019 Vol.6, No. 1

Funding and inclusion in higher education institutions for students with disabilities

CHIWANDIRE, Desiree
VINCENT, Louise
2019

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Background: Historically, challenges faced by students with disabilities (SWDs) in accessing higher education institutions (HEIs) were attributed to limited public funding. The introduction of progressive funding models such as disability scholarships served to widen access to, and participation in, higher education for SWDs. However, recent years have seen these advances threatened by funding cuts and privatisation in higher education.

 

Objectives: In this article, the funding mechanisms of selected developed and developing democratic countries including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and India are described in order to gain an insight into how such mechanisms enhance access, equal participation, retention, success and equality of outcome for SWDs. The countries selected are often spoken about as exemplars of best practices in relation to widening access and opportunities for SWDs through government mandated funding mechanisms. Method: A critical literature review of the sample countries’ funding mechanisms governing SWDs in higher education and other relevant government documents; secondary academic literature on disability funding; online sources including University World News, University Affairs, newspaper articles, newsletters, literature from bodies such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Disabled World and Parliamentary Monitoring Group. Data were analysed using a theoretically derived directed qualitative content analysis.

 

Results: Barriers which place SWDs at a substantial educational disadvantage compared to their non-disabled peers include bureaucratisation of application processes, cuts in disability funding, means-test requirements, minimal scholarships for supporting part-time and distance learning for SWDs and inadequate financial support to meet the day-to-day costs that arise as a result of disability.

 

Conclusion: Although the steady increase of SWDs accessing HEIs of the sampled countries have been attributed to supportive disability funding policies, notable is the fact that these students are still confronted by insurmountable disability funding-oriented barriers. Thus, we recommend the need for these HEIs to address these challenges as a matter of urgency if they are to respect the rights of SWDs as well as provide them with an enabling environment to succeed academically.

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019

Disability Employment Policy 101 Guide

LeBLANC, Nicole
BUEHLMANN, Eric
2019

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This USA based toolkit is intended to help self-advocates and their allies to advocate for Real Jobs for Real Pay and for Competitive Integrated Employment (CIE). It covers the issues with sheltered workplaces and the advantages of CIE. It also covers what individuals can do locally, at the State level and nationally. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) is outlined. Four self advocate stories are given.

3rd World Disability & Rehabilitation Conference (WDRC 2018) - Book of abstracts

O'CONNOR, Loren
Ed
November 2018

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The 3rd World Disability & Rehabilitation Conference 2018 was held from 12th and 13th November 2018 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. People with disabilities and researchers, practitioners, policy makers, industry experts, university faculty and organizations along with advocates and volunteers working with people with disabilities participated and presented their original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, experiential or theoretical work through abstract and poster presentation. Total 33 participants presented their abstract and poster throughout this conference. The theme of WDRC 2018 was “Global advocacy and rights of people with disabilities”

Development of an evidence-based practice framework to guide decision making support for people with cognitive impairment due to acquired brain injury or intellectual disability

DOUGLAS, Jacinta
BIGBY, Christine
November 2018

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Purpose: At least 5% of people in Australia and the USA have cognitive impairment and require support for decision-making. This paper details a research program whereby an evidence-based Support for Decision Making Practice Framework has been developed for those who support people with cognitive disabilities to make their own decisions across life domains.

 

Methods: The La Trobe framework was derived from a research program modeled on the Medical Research Council four-phase approach to development and evaluation of complex interventions. We completed phase one (development) by: (1) systematically reviewing peer-reviewed literature; and (2) undertaking qualitative exploration of the experience of support for decision-making from the perspectives of people with cognitive disabilities and their supporters through seven grounded theory studies. Results of phase two (feasibility and piloting) involving direct support workers and health professionals supported phase three (evaluation) and four (implementation), currently underway.

 

Results: The framework outlines the steps, principles, and strategies involved in support for decision-making. It focuses on understanding the will and preferences of people with cognitive disabilities and guides those who provide support including families, support workers, guardians, and health professionals.

 

Conclusions: This framework applies across diverse contemporary contexts and is the first evidence-based guide to support for decision-making.

2030 Agenda for sustainable development: Selected SDG indicators disaggregated by disability status

WASHINGTON GROUP ON DISABILITY STATISTICS
October 2018

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In light of the importance of disability data collection and the disaggregation of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) outcome indicators by disability status, the Washington Group on Disability Statistics (WG) undertook an exercise to review, among WG member countries, the extent to which data on SDG indicators currently available can be disaggregated by disability status. Requests for disaggregated SDG data for 13 selected indicators were sent to 146 member countries. 48 countries responded and 39 provided data. Response data is tabulated and discussed.

Prevalence of disabilities and health care access by disability status and type among adults — United States, 2016

OKORO, Catherine
et al
August 2018

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In 2013, based on questions to assess five disability types (i.e., vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living), one in five U.S. adults reported a disability.

In 2016, using the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services six-question set, one in four (61 million) U.S. adults reported any disability; nearly 6% reported hearing disability. Adults with disabilities, particularly those aged 18–44 and 45–64 years, experienced disparities in health care access by disability type.

 

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:882–887

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6732a3

College for Students with Disabilities: A Guide for Students, Families, and Educators

Maryville University Online
March 2018

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Students with disabilities and their families have many pathways to achieve independence through higher education. First they need to know their rights and how to prepare for higher education.

There are many pathways to achieve independence through higher education, and Maryville University has created this helpful “Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ) to give you an idea of what to expect as you research your options.

Association between social factors and performance during Functional Capacity Evaluations: a systematic review

ANSUATEGUI ECHEITA, Jone
VAN HOLLAND, Berry J
GROSS, Douglas P
KOOL, Jan
OESCH, Peter
TRIPPOLINI, Maurizio
RENEMAN, Michiel F
March 2018

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Purpose: Determine the association of different social factors with Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) performance in adults.

 

Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO electronic databases. Studies were eligible if they studied social factor’s association with the performance of adults undergoing FCE. Studies were assessed on methodological quality and quality of evidence. The review was performed using best-evidence synthesis methods.

 

Results: Thirteen studies were eligible and 11 social factors were studied. Considerable heterogeneity regarding measurements, populations, and methods existed among the studies. High quality of evidence was found for the association of FCE performance with the country of FCE and examiner’s fear behavior; moderate quality of evidence with previous job salary; and low or very low quality of evidence with compensation status, litigation status, type of instruction, time of day (workday), primary or mother language, and ethnicity. Other social factors were not studied.

 

Conclusions: Evidence for associations of various social factors with FCE performance was found, but robust conclusions about the strength of the associations cannot be made. Quality of evidence ranged from high to very low. Further research on social factors, also within a biopsychosocial context, is necessary to provide a better understanding of FCE performance.

Disability and vocational rehabilitation in rural settings

HARLEY, Debra
et al
2018

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A graduate student textbook offered in 39 chapters, each with different authors and subjects. Abstracts, test questions and citations are freely available on-line. Full text is charged for. The book surveys rehabilitation and vocational programs aiding persons with disabilities in remote and developing areas in the U.S. and abroad. Contributors discuss longstanding challenges to these communities, most notably economic and environmental obstacles and ongoing barriers to service delivery, as well as their resilience and strengths. Considerations are largely of the US but there is a chapter on each of Asia and Pacific region, Australasia, Canada, Mexico, India, Turkey, Colombia and the UK. 

 

Fully accessible guide to flying with disabilities

2018

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A table is provided of the top 15 US airports giving notes on restrooms, pet relief areas, parking for people with disabilities and wheelchair services. Advantages of the use of specific credits cards by disabled people when travelling by plane in the USA are highlighted.

Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2018, Vol. 5 No. 2 - Special issue: Intersecting Indigeneity, Colonisation and Disability

2018

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Articles include:

  • Editorial: Intersecting Indigeneity, colonialisation and disability
  • Yuin, Kamilaroi, Sámi, and Maori people’s reflections on experiences as ‘Indigenous scholars’ in ‘Disability Studies’ and ‘Decolonisation’
  • Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology: Practitioners’ Reflections on Indigeneity, Disability and Neo-Colonial Marketing
  • ‘My granddaughter doesn’t know she has disabilities and we are not going to tell her’: Navigating Intersections of Indigenousness, Disability and Gender in Labrador
  • Disabling Bodies of/and Land: Reframing Disability Justice in Conversation with Indigenous Theory and Activism
  • The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its implications for the health and wellbeing of indigenous peoples with disabilities: A comparison across Australia, Mexico and New Zealand
  • Challenges in global Indigenous–Disability comparative research, or, why nation-state political histories matter
  • ‘Black on the inside’: albino subjectivity in the African novel
  • The role of indigenous and external knowledge in development interventions with disabled people in Burkina Faso: the implications of engaging with lived experiences
  • An intersection in population control: welfare reform and indigenous people with a partial capacity to work in the Australian northern territory
  • Inclusion of marginalised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with neurocognitive disability in the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS)

 

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