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Disability, health and human development

MITRA, Sophie
October 2017

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This book presents new research on disability, health, and wellbeing in four countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) . The primary focus is empirical. It also makes a conceptual contribution as it presents a new model of disability based on the human development and capability approach. It addresses four questions: 

  • How should disability be defined to analyse and inform policies related to wellbeing?
  • What is the prevalence of functional difficulties?
  • What inequalities are associated with functional difficulties?
  • What are the economic consequences of functional difficulties? 

Detailed data analysis using large-scale household survey datasets is combined with an interactional model of disability based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

 

DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-53638-9

 

First of book series: the Palgrave Studies in Disability and International Development

Deaf education development programme. Young people’s consultation, Tanzania, August 2017

COWAN, Jo
September 2017

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In partnership with Deaf Child Worldwide, Childreach Tanzania delivered the Deaf Education and Development Programme (DEDP) from June 2014 to June 2017 in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. The DEDP improved the quality of life of deaf young people by:

› increasing enrolment and retention of young people in training centres

› improving sign language proficiency and communication between deaf young people and key stakeholders in their lives

› connecting deaf youth to internships and other business opportunities to support them to earn a living.

However, the DEDP highlighted many examples of deaf young people developing vocational skills, but still failing to transition from secondary school or vocational training centres into work. Phase two of this project will focus on youth employment, livelihoods and transition from school to independent living.

 

This report summarises consultation activities held with deaf young people during August 2017. The consultation explored their knowledge of the challenges they face when leaving school and their experiences of accessing information and support to help them transition to an independent life. The findings of this consultation have been hugely influential in the proposed project design for phase two. The consultation was a three-day workshop held at a community-based hub hosting a different group of young people each day. Group 1 – Young people who have left school. Group 2 – Moshi Technical School students (secondary school). Group 3 – Ghona Vocational Training Centre students

Bridging the gap – your role in transporting children with disabilities to school in developing countries

ACCESS EXCHANGE INTERNATIONAL
AJUWON, Paul
January 2017

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This guide provides practical information for people who want to improve transportation for children with disabilities in developing countries. The guide will help parents and their children, teachers, heads of schools, and education officials to improve transport to and from school for children with disabilities. It will help transportation officials and transport providers, as well as agencies promoting sustainable development in developing countries. The guide addresses a variety of circumstances found in it's case studies, ranging from children with disabilities riding on school buses in large cities to children walking to school in some rural areas where roads do not even exist. Key findings and recommendations are presented from research carried out, case studies and interviews with school heads 

Disability and gender-based violence. Peer research in Kibaha and Mkuranga, Tanzania

ADD
2016

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Development agencies, power holders and service providers need to build into their programmes the right protection for disabled women. It will require sustained global focus, momentum and action. But if we are serious about fulfilling the aspiration to ‘leave no one behind’ then it has to be done. This contextual study aims at building an understanding of the factors and impact of gender-based violence towards women and girls with disabilities in Mkuranga Rural and Kibaha Urban in Pwani Region. The focus is on sexual, physical, and psychological/emotional violence. We hope that this research will act as a catalyst for further exploration, analysis and urgent response actions from a multitude of actors.

Graduates’ perceptions of prosthetic and orthotic education and clinical practice in Tanzania and Malawi

MAGNUSSON, Lina
SHANGALI, Harold G
AHLSTRÖM, Gerd
2016

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Background: Maintaining and improving the quality of prosthetics and orthotics education at the Tanzania Training Centre for Orthopaedic Technologists is essential for the provision of appropriate prosthetics and orthotics services in African countries.

 

Objectives: To describe how Tanzanian and Malawian graduates’ of the Diploma in Orthopaedic Technology perceive their education and how it could be improved or supplemented to facilitate clinical practice of graduates.

 

Methods: Nineteen graduates from the diploma course in orthopaedic technology were interviewed and phenomenographic analysis was applied to the data.

 

Results: Seven descriptive categories emerged, namely varied awareness of the profession before starting education, well-equipped teaching facilities, aspects lacking in the learning context, need for changes in the curriculum, enabling people to walk is motivating, obstacles in working conditions and the need for continuous professional development. All participants perceived possible improvements to the content and learning environment.

 

Conclusions: Prosthetic and orthotic education can be better provided by modifying the content of the diploma programme by dedicating more time to the clinical management of different patient groups and applied biomechanics as well as reducing the programme content focusing on technical aspects of prosthetic and orthotic practice. Graduates were not prepared for the rural working conditions and the graduates desired continued training.

How CBM Australia supports engagement with government for disability inclusion and prevention

CBM AUSTRALIA
March 2016

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CBM Australia engages both directly and indirectly with governments. Indirectly, CBM Australia supports other organisations, for instance disabled people’s organisations or civil society organisations to engage with governments. This report looks at the different ways that CBM partners seek influence government and promote sustainability. It considers the different roles and relevance of activism, advocacy, service delivery and advisory approaches.

 

The cases in this report were identified and gathered through semi-structured interviews with CBM’s Program Officers, Technical Advisors, regional/country office and project staff in-country, as well as drawing on reports and evaluations. The report starts with a section explaining the four different approaches to working with government, followed by a brief introduction to each approach, highlighting what CBM are doing and the key lessons learned. Each section is followed by case studies giving more detailed insight into how CBM are engaging, key achievements, challenges and the lessons learned. Fifteen case studies covering key projects from CBM Australia’s International Programs and the Inclusive Development Team are described in this report.

Hear my voice: old age and disability are not a curse. A community-based participatory study gathering the lived experiences of persons with disabilities and older people in Tanzania

MRISHO, Mwifadhi
FAKIH, Bakar
GREENWOOD, Margo
STEFF, Marion
2016

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Community based participatory research (CBPR) was used to provide evidence on the specific nature and experiences of persons with disabilities and older people from their own perspectives in Tanzania, through the lens of social, political, economic and cultural inclusion. The aim was to strengthen efforts to provide services for and improve the lives of people living in the rural and urban settings of Nachingwea and Kibaha Urban Municipal Council. Twenty-nine peer researchers (nine persons with disabilities, 10 older people and 10 Tanzanian Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) members working in these communities) were involved in the study. A total of 106 stories were collected. Eight priority areas emerged and were chosen by peer researchers for further discussion in groups: access to education and quality learning; access to health services; issues fed back from NGOs; poverty relating to income and dependence; attitudes towards witchcraft and albinism; relationship difficulties and marriage breakdowns; sexual violence and gender issues; poor treatment from family
 

Voices of the marginalised

2016

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The aim of 'Voices of the Marginalised' is to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised, including those with disabilities, older people and people living with mental health problems, into post-2015 policymaking. Focusing on Bangladesh and Tanzania, people with disabilities and older people were asked to become researchers themselves, and were trained to collect and analyse stories from peers in rural and urban areas.

Enabling education review, issue 4

ENABLING EDUCATION NETWORK
December 2015

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This newsletter contains a variety of articles about inclusive education in several countries around the world. The topics focus mostly on funding, managing and sustaining inclusive education; engaging and empowering beneficiaries in finding solutions; facilitating parental and child involvement and early childhood education

Enabling Education Review, issue 4

Inclusive civic engagement toolkit for governments

INCLUSION INTERNATIONAL
October 2015

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This toolkit has been developed as part of an Inclusion International project, Accessing the Ballot Box, funded by the UN Democracy Fund. The project was designed to address the limited political participation of people with intellectual disabilities in Kenya, Zanzibar and Lebanon.

It sought to identify and challenge the barriers people with intellectual disabilities face in exercising their right to civic engagement and political participation and increase the awareness and knowledge of project stakeholders (people with intellectual disabilities, their families and representative organizations, service providers and governments) on building inclusive democratic processes.

Inclusive civic engagement toolkit. An information toolkit for families and people with intellectual disabilities

INCLUSION INTERNATIONAL
October 2015

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This toolkit has been developed as part of an Inclusion International project, Accessing the Ballot Box, funded by the UN Democracy Fund. The project was designed to address the limited political participation of people with intellectual disabilities in Kenya, Zanzibar and Lebanon.

It sought to identify and challenge the barriers people with intellectual disabilities face in exercising their right to civic engagement and political participation and increase the awareness and knowledge of project stakeholders (people with intellectual disabilities, their families and representative organizations, service providers and governments) on building inclusive democratic processes.

This information toolkit is designed to explore how to support people to access the ballot box before during and after elections and to support people with intellectual disabilities and their families, governments and partners to ensure people with intellectual disabilities are able to exercise their right to political participation.

Labeling albinism: language and discourse surrounding people with albinism in Tanzania

BROCCO, Giorgio
2015

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This article is based on a qualitative study that set out to analyze the labels and terms attached to 28 people affected by albinism in villages in Kilolo district, Tanzania. Even though national and international attention to killings of people with albinism has attempted to improve general knowledge of albinism and reduce discrimination, most of the community members within the study had lit- tle knowledge of the (bio)medical explanations for albinism and tended to marginalize people with albinism. Framed within a wider moral discourse on ill- ness, disability and socially appropriate behavior, albinism is mostly considered to be God’s will or the consequence of past misdeeds within the family, and many of the existing labels for people with albinism express such ideas.

Beneath the rhetoric: Policy to reduce the mental health treatment gap in Africa

COOPER, Sara
2015

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In this paper I problematize knowledge on reducing the ‘gap’ in treatment produced by 14 national mental health policies in Africa. To contextualize this analysis, I begin with a historic-political account of the emergence of the notion of primary health care and its entanglement within decolonization forces of the 1960s. I unpack how and why this concept was subsequently atrophied, being stripped of its more revolutionary sentiments from the 1980s. Against this backdrop, I show how, although the 14 national mental health policies are saturated with the rhetoric of primary health care and associated concepts of community participation and ownership, in practice they tend to marginalize local meaning-systems and endorse a top-down framework heavily informed by colonial medicine. The policies thus end up reproducing many of the very Eurocentric assumptions that the original primary health care notion sought to transcend. More specifically, the paradigms of evidence-based research/practice and individualised human rights become the gatekeepers of knowledge. These two paradigms, which are deeply embedded within contemporary global mental health discourse, are legislating what are legitimate forms of knowing, and by extension, valid forms of care. I argue that a greater appreciation of the primary health care concept, in its earliest formulation, offers a potentially fruitful terrain of engagement for developing more contextually-embedded and epistemologically appropriate mental health policies in Africa. This in turn might help reduce the current ‘gap’ in mental health care treatment so many countries on the continent face.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 3

Disability disaggregation of data : baseline report

JOLLEY, Emma
THIVILLIER, Pauline
SMITH, Fred
December 2014

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“This baseline report contains information on the initial steps (prior to the start of data collection) undertaken to include disaggregation of data by disability in two projects in Tanzania and India. The report includes information on project selection, development of an Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) plan, adaptation of data collection tools and training of Country Office staff, partners and data collectors. This baseline also captures the knowledge, attitudes and practices of programme managers, decision makers and data collectors around disability, the availability of data, and the experiences of Sightsavers’ implementing staff”

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Inclusive Tanzania network : access to education and political participation of persons with disabilities

LIGHT FOR THE WORLD
Ed
October 2014

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MTAJU - Inclusive Tanzania was a pilot project aiming to empower persons with disabilities through inclusive education and political participation that ran from November 2005 to December 2010. MTAJU is a network of Tanzanian Disabled People’s Organizations (DPOs) and Pro Disability Organizations (PDOs), who campaign together for an inclusive society where people with disabilities enjoy the same rights as other citizens. The project's main aims were the legal, political and social establishment of the right to education of children with disabilities and the right to political participation of persons with disabilities. This short learning guide is based on the full project report and highlights the key lessons learned by the project team. This guide would be very useful for anyone interested in the access to education for children with disabilities and the participation of disabled people in public and political life in Africa in particular and the global south in general

Learning Guide, 2/2014

Applied research on disability in Africa : general mapping

INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION OF APPLIED DISABILITY RESEARCH (FIRAH)
2014

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“The goal of this literary review is to report on existing knowledge about applied research on the African continent, regarding the living conditions of people with disabilities, poverty, violence and sexual abuse especially regarding children and women with disabilities, community-based rehabilitation and employment”

Mainstreaming disability and ageing in water, sanitation and hygiene sector

JONES, Hazel
September 2013

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This report presents the findings of a desk study that provided an overview of the current state of disability and ageing issues in WASH, from the perspective of the WASH sector. Both disabled and older people were looked at together, because many frail older people, although they may reject the label ‘disabled’, experience impairments that limit their daily activities, which result in them facing similar kinds of barriers to accessing WASH

Occupational therapy synergy between Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania and Heifer International to reduce poverty

HANSEN, Anne Marie W
CHAKI, Albert P
MLAY, Ruth
2013

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Background: This article describes a partnership between a community-based rehabilitation organisation and a non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Tanzania. The partnership focused on income-generating (IG) activities to tackle the problems of poverty faced by families with a child with a disability (CWD).

 

Objectives: The aim of this case study was to describe the partnership between Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Moshi (CCBRT-Moshi), a non-governmental organisation, and families to create an income-generating business, namely raising goats.

 

Method: This was a team approach between CCBRT-Moshi and Heifer International, an organisation that focuses on IG activities to create a synergy or partnership between community-based rehabilitation and IG activities.

 

Results: This partnership between occupational therapy rehabilitation services at CCBRT-Moshi and the NGO resulted in strengthening the effectiveness of occupational therapy services and leaving a more lasting impact on the people they served within the community by helping to reduce poverty in addition to providing rehabilitation and prevention interventions.

 

Conclusion: This collaboration was successful as it provided a means for families to generate income from raising goats. Although the results have not been empirically verified, observational and anecdotal evidence suggests that families with CWDs have better quality of life and ultimately improved health through this synergistic partnership.

Perceptions of caring for children with disabilities: Experiences from Moshi, Tanzania

MCNALLY, Anna
MANNAN, Hasheem
2013

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Background: Although there exist laws, policies and standards in Tanzania that serve to protect and improve the lives of children with disabilities, the individual human experiences and feelings of the carers and parents still remain the realities of caring for children with disabilities. There is a lack of qualitative studies examining experiences in a developing context. This research aimed to fill that gap.

 

Objectives: The objective of this research was to gain an insight into how having a child with a disability impacts upon participants lives and to examine both negative and positive experiences of care through the use of qualitative methods.

 

Method: This was a qualitative, exploratory study and followed a phenomenological method. Purposive convenience sampling methods were used to recruit 14 carers in Moshi, Tanzania. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with all 14 participants.

 

Results: Five main themes emerged from the data which shed light on the carers experiences, namely, objective challenges in terms of financial challenges, employment issues and demands of care; subjective challenges in the form of stigma, isolation and pity; positive experiences such as the child’s progress, respect and happiness; material and financial needs; and coping mechanisms which included beliefs, support and attitudes.

 

Conclusion: The findings of this research were that objective challenges are common and more significant than subjective challenges. Positive experiences were not as easily identified by the participants as the challenges faced. However, having analysed the data, carers do not experience their roles as entirely negative. They simply need the resources to deal with objective challenges which in a developing context are not easily attainable.

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