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Disability Inclusive Development - Tanzania Situational Analysis

ROHWERDER, Brigitte
June 2020

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This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Tanzania?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Tanzania. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Tanzania, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues. This SITAN has been briefly updated from the April 2019 SITAN.

Disability stigma in the Disability Inclusive Development (DID) programme countries: an overview of the evidence

ROHWERDER, Brigitte
September 2019

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This literature review outlines factors contributing to disability stigma in low- and middle-income countries. Overviews of disability stigma in the six Disability Inclusive Development (DID) programme countries – Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania – are presented next. The review then looks at the literature on interventions to reduce disability stigma. Interventions aimed at addressing disability stigma in developing countries have been aimed at the intrapersonal and familial level; the interpersonal level; and the structural level.

Missing millions: How older people with disabilities are excluded from humanitarian response

SHEPPARD, Phillip
POLACK, Sarah
McGIVERN, Madeleine
July 2018

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The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of older people with disabilities across a range of humanitarian settings, considering:

  • whether older people with disabilities have additional needs and challenges accessing humanitarian assistance and protection
  • what factors facilitate or limit access by older people with disabilities to humanitarian assistance and protection
  • to what extent is humanitarian response inclusive of older people with disabilities

A systematic literature review of published studies was conducted. Key online humanitarian guidelines were explored to review how far they explicitly address older people with disabilities. Data from six population-based disability surveys comparing the living situation of older people with and without disabilities were analysed. These included databases from two crises-affected populations in Haiti (post-earthquake) and Palestine. Data from four non-humanitarian settings was also reviewed to explore more broadly the situation for older people with disabilities – India, Guatemala, Cameroon and Nepal. Interviews were held with older people with disabilities, members of their families and local key informants in two conflict-affected populations in Ndutu and Mtendeli refugee camps in Western Tanzania, and Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Eastern Ukraine to find out about their experiences. Staff of five international agencies working in humanitarian response were also interviewed. 

 

Findings highlight particular issues facing older people with disabilities in humanitarian crises: more risk escaping from danger;  barriers to accessing social protection and work; barriers to accessing health and rehabilitation services; barriers to accessing food and other essentials; unsuitable housing and poor living conditions;  insecurity and discrimination; threats to dignity and independence; social isolation and loneliness; risks to mental health; and missing from humanitarian response.

 

A table brings together the findings from the different components of the research to show the needs, risks, barriers and enablers for older people with disabilities identified in the research. Recommendations are provided to humanitarian donors, policy makers and practitioners

Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, Volume 29, No.2, 2018 (Summer 2018)

July 2018

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Research articles are:

  • Lived Experience of Psychosocial Disability and Social Inclusion: A Participatory Photovoice Study in Rural India and Nepal
  • Barriers and Facilitators for Wheelchair Users in Bangladesh: A Participatory Action Research Project
  • A Cross-sectional Survey of Rehabilitation Service Provision for Children with Brain Injury in Selangor, Malaysia
  • Effect of Abacus Training on Numerical Ability of Students with Hearing Loss
  • Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of Persian Version of Supports Intensity Scale among Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Review:

  • Developmental Social Work for Promoting the Socioeconomic Participation of Persons with Disabilities: An Application of the Capability Approach
     

Brief reports:

  • Zero Rejection Policy in Admission of Children with Special Needs - Myth or Reality
  • Ujamaa and Universal Design: Developing Sustainable Tactile Curricular Materials in Rural Tanzania

Disability, health and human development

MITRA, Sophie
2018

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This open access book introduces the human development model to define disability and map its links with health and wellbeing, based on Sen’s capability approach. The author uses panel survey data with internationally comparable questions on disability for Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. It presents evidence on the prevalence of disability and its strong and consistent association with multidimensional poverty, mortality, economic insecurity and deprivations in education, morbidity and employment. It shows that disability needs to be considered from multiple angles including aging, gender, health and poverty. Ultimately, this study makes a call for inclusion and prevention interventions as solutions to the deprivations associated with impairments and health conditions.

 

Chapters include:

  • The Human Development Model of Disability, Health and Wellbeing
  • Measurement, Data and Country Context
  • Prevalence of Functional Difficulties
  • Functional Difficulties and Inequalities Through a Static Lens
  • Dynamics of Functional Difficulties and Wellbeing
  • Main Results and Implications

 

Global AgeWatch Insights. The right to health for older people, the right to be counted

ALBONE, Rachel
et al
2018

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This report considers the progress being made to achieve older people's right to health amid the global drive towards universal health coverage. It explores how older people are currently accessing health services and what changes need to be made to improve on this. It considers the role of data in driving and informing changes to health systems and the services they deliver. Data must be collected with and about older people to ensure adequate evidence for service design and delivery that is targeted and appropriate. This report explores the adequacy of current data systems and collection mechanisms and how, alongside health systems, they must be adapted in an ageing world. 

 

This report is supported by 12 country profiles (for Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Kenya, Lebanon, Moldova, Myanmar, Pakistan, Serbia, Tanzania, Vietnam and Zimbabwe; see Appendix 1). These provide national information on trends in the physical and mental health status of older people, and population-level information on access to UHC. The profiles are supplemented by data mapping, showing the national data available on older people’s health in the 12 profile countries, and revealing the data gaps. The data mapping results are available at www.GlobalAgeWatch.org.

‘Black on the inside’: albino subjectivity in the African novel

LIPENGA, Ken Junior
NGMIRA, Emmanuel
2018

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The last decade has seen increased attention to the treatment of people with albinism in several African countries, particularly the peril they find themselves in due to stigma and superstition. As a way of countering these misconceptions, there has been educative activism from legal, medical as well as religious perspectives. In this paper, we draw upon a different discourse- literary representation- arguing that in selected African novels, the authors employ a variety of strategies that counter harmful stereotypes about albinism, and in the process act as literary interventions that enable an appreciation of the person behind the skin condition. Drawing from insights in Literary Disability Studies, the discussion examines the representation of albinism in four African novels: Petina Gappah’s The Book of Memory (2015), Meg Vandermerwe’s Zebra Crossing (2013), Unathi Magubeni’s Nwelezelanga: The Star Child (2016), and Jenny Robson’s Because Pula Means Rain (2000), and highlights the way albinism is presented as bodily condition that intersects with other experiences on the continent, including indigenous epistemologies, gender, sexuality and family relationships. 

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2

Disability, health and human development

MITRA, Sophie
October 2017

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This book presents new research on disability, health, and wellbeing in four countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) . The primary focus is empirical. It also makes a conceptual contribution as it presents a new model of disability based on the human development and capability approach. It addresses four questions: 

  • How should disability be defined to analyse and inform policies related to wellbeing?
  • What is the prevalence of functional difficulties?
  • What inequalities are associated with functional difficulties?
  • What are the economic consequences of functional difficulties? 

Detailed data analysis using large-scale household survey datasets is combined with an interactional model of disability based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

 

DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-53638-9

 

First of book series: the Palgrave Studies in Disability and International Development

Deaf education development programme. Young people’s consultation, Tanzania, August 2017

COWAN, Jo
September 2017

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In partnership with Deaf Child Worldwide, Childreach Tanzania delivered the Deaf Education and Development Programme (DEDP) from June 2014 to June 2017 in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. The DEDP improved the quality of life of deaf young people by:

› increasing enrolment and retention of young people in training centres

› improving sign language proficiency and communication between deaf young people and key stakeholders in their lives

› connecting deaf youth to internships and other business opportunities to support them to earn a living.

However, the DEDP highlighted many examples of deaf young people developing vocational skills, but still failing to transition from secondary school or vocational training centres into work. Phase two of this project will focus on youth employment, livelihoods and transition from school to independent living.

 

This report summarises consultation activities held with deaf young people during August 2017. The consultation explored their knowledge of the challenges they face when leaving school and their experiences of accessing information and support to help them transition to an independent life. The findings of this consultation have been hugely influential in the proposed project design for phase two. The consultation was a three-day workshop held at a community-based hub hosting a different group of young people each day. Group 1 – Young people who have left school. Group 2 – Moshi Technical School students (secondary school). Group 3 – Ghona Vocational Training Centre students

Bridging the gap – your role in transporting children with disabilities to school in developing countries

ACCESS EXCHANGE INTERNATIONAL
AJUWON, Paul
January 2017

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This guide provides practical information for people who want to improve transportation for children with disabilities in developing countries. The guide will help parents and their children, teachers, heads of schools, and education officials to improve transport to and from school for children with disabilities. It will help transportation officials and transport providers, as well as agencies promoting sustainable development in developing countries. The guide addresses a variety of circumstances found in it's case studies, ranging from children with disabilities riding on school buses in large cities to children walking to school in some rural areas where roads do not even exist. Key findings and recommendations are presented from research carried out, case studies and interviews with school heads 

Disability and gender-based violence. Peer research in Kibaha and Mkuranga, Tanzania

ADD
2016

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Development agencies, power holders and service providers need to build into their programmes the right protection for disabled women. It will require sustained global focus, momentum and action. But if we are serious about fulfilling the aspiration to ‘leave no one behind’ then it has to be done. This contextual study aims at building an understanding of the factors and impact of gender-based violence towards women and girls with disabilities in Mkuranga Rural and Kibaha Urban in Pwani Region. The focus is on sexual, physical, and psychological/emotional violence. We hope that this research will act as a catalyst for further exploration, analysis and urgent response actions from a multitude of actors.

How CBM Australia supports engagement with government for disability inclusion and prevention

CBM AUSTRALIA
March 2016

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CBM Australia engages both directly and indirectly with governments. Indirectly, CBM Australia supports other organisations, for instance disabled people’s organisations or civil society organisations to engage with governments. This report looks at the different ways that CBM partners seek influence government and promote sustainability. It considers the different roles and relevance of activism, advocacy, service delivery and advisory approaches.

 

The cases in this report were identified and gathered through semi-structured interviews with CBM’s Program Officers, Technical Advisors, regional/country office and project staff in-country, as well as drawing on reports and evaluations. The report starts with a section explaining the four different approaches to working with government, followed by a brief introduction to each approach, highlighting what CBM are doing and the key lessons learned. Each section is followed by case studies giving more detailed insight into how CBM are engaging, key achievements, challenges and the lessons learned. Fifteen case studies covering key projects from CBM Australia’s International Programs and the Inclusive Development Team are described in this report.

Hear my voice: old age and disability are not a curse. A community-based participatory study gathering the lived experiences of persons with disabilities and older people in Tanzania

MRISHO, Mwifadhi
FAKIH, Bakar
GREENWOOD, Margo
STEFF, Marion
2016

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Community based participatory research (CBPR) was used to provide evidence on the specific nature and experiences of persons with disabilities and older people from their own perspectives in Tanzania, through the lens of social, political, economic and cultural inclusion. The aim was to strengthen efforts to provide services for and improve the lives of people living in the rural and urban settings of Nachingwea and Kibaha Urban Municipal Council. Twenty-nine peer researchers (nine persons with disabilities, 10 older people and 10 Tanzanian Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) members working in these communities) were involved in the study. A total of 106 stories were collected. Eight priority areas emerged and were chosen by peer researchers for further discussion in groups: access to education and quality learning; access to health services; issues fed back from NGOs; poverty relating to income and dependence; attitudes towards witchcraft and albinism; relationship difficulties and marriage breakdowns; sexual violence and gender issues; poor treatment from family
 

Voices of the marginalised

2016

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The aim of 'Voices of the Marginalised' is to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised, including those with disabilities, older people and people living with mental health problems, into post-2015 policymaking. Focusing on Bangladesh and Tanzania, people with disabilities and older people were asked to become researchers themselves, and were trained to collect and analyse stories from peers in rural and urban areas.

Disability disaggregation of data : baseline report

JOLLEY, Emma
THIVILLIER, Pauline
SMITH, Fred
December 2014

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“This baseline report contains information on the initial steps (prior to the start of data collection) undertaken to include disaggregation of data by disability in two projects in Tanzania and India. The report includes information on project selection, development of an Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) plan, adaptation of data collection tools and training of Country Office staff, partners and data collectors. This baseline also captures the knowledge, attitudes and practices of programme managers, decision makers and data collectors around disability, the availability of data, and the experiences of Sightsavers’ implementing staff”

Note: The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

Inclusive Tanzania network : access to education and political participation of persons with disabilities

LIGHT FOR THE WORLD
Ed
October 2014

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MTAJU - Inclusive Tanzania was a pilot project aiming to empower persons with disabilities through inclusive education and political participation that ran from November 2005 to December 2010. MTAJU is a network of Tanzanian Disabled People’s Organizations (DPOs) and Pro Disability Organizations (PDOs), who campaign together for an inclusive society where people with disabilities enjoy the same rights as other citizens. The project's main aims were the legal, political and social establishment of the right to education of children with disabilities and the right to political participation of persons with disabilities. This short learning guide is based on the full project report and highlights the key lessons learned by the project team. This guide would be very useful for anyone interested in the access to education for children with disabilities and the participation of disabled people in public and political life in Africa in particular and the global south in general

Learning Guide, 2/2014

Applied research on disability in Africa : general mapping

INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION OF APPLIED DISABILITY RESEARCH (FIRAH)
2014

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“The goal of this literary review is to report on existing knowledge about applied research on the African continent, regarding the living conditions of people with disabilities, poverty, violence and sexual abuse especially regarding children and women with disabilities, community-based rehabilitation and employment”

Mainstreaming disability and ageing in water, sanitation and hygiene sector

JONES, Hazel
September 2013

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This report presents the findings of a desk study that provided an overview of the current state of disability and ageing issues in WASH, from the perspective of the WASH sector. Both disabled and older people were looked at together, because many frail older people, although they may reject the label ‘disabled’, experience impairments that limit their daily activities, which result in them facing similar kinds of barriers to accessing WASH

From exclusion to part of the solution : lessons learned along the way : making HIV/AIDS strategies inclusive of people with disabilities in Tanzania

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
COMPREHENSIVE COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION IN TANZANIA (CCBRT)
July 2012

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“The Making HIV/AIDS Strategies Inclusive of People with Disabilities in Tanzania was a three-year project (February 2009-January 2012), implemented by CBM US and local partner Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania (CCBRT). The goal of the project was to increase access for people with disabilities and their caregivers to HIV and AIDS prevention, care, treatment and support services in Tanzania. Based on a review of project documents, interviews and success stories, the following three interlinked lessons learned categories and eleven lessons learned emerged as critical to the successful achievement of project objectives, and the lessons learned described in this report will provide a foundation for improving on future programming of similar projects”

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