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CBR stories from Africa : what can they teach us?


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"Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is an evolving concept. Its effectiveness depends on continuous reflection, debate and learning. This book aims to facilitate this process through the stories of five CBR programmes in Africa, told by those involved with the programmes and reflected on with honesty...Each of the five programmes has been invited to document their work, describing how its programme started and assessing the effectiveness of the approach it has chosen. They were asked to identify their successes and challenges, and to reflect on how difficulties are being overcome. Life stories illustrate the impact each approach can have on individual lives. The book offers itself as a reflective tool, to be used by practitioners. Each chapter asks specific questions of its readers, inviting them to draw comparisons with their own programme. The concluding section of the book outlines ideas for evaluating and developing their CBR programmes"

Home truths : the phenomenon of residential care for children in a time of AIDS

et al
June 2007

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The main sections fo this report describe how the international child welfare sector and the South African government define and conceptualise the role of residential care in the context of the HIV epidemic; analyse the basic characteristics of children found to be resident in the range of settings identified; and provide a detailed exploration of different aspects of residential care settings in the study sites. The primary conclusions drawn from the findings are grouped into six areas: children in residential care; knowledge and practice regarding HIV and AIDS; policy discourse; complexity of residential care provision 'on the ground'; registration; and the interface between legislation, government practice and residential care provision

Hero book anthology : a collection of hero stories from Southern Africa

MORGAN, Jonathan
June 2007

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This anthology provides an introduction to hero books, which are effectively REPSSI's evolution of memory books. Hero books aim to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of a child through providing a safe and secure format for children to contemplate their heroes, memories and aspirations. Children are encouraged to write/tell their own stories and in doing so the aim is to build their sense of resilience and better prepare them for the challenges they may face in relation to HIV and AIDS

Key findings from an evaluation of the mothers2mothers program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

BAEK, Carolyn
et al
June 2007

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Mothers2mothers (m2m) is a peer support programme that aims to provide education and psycho-social support to HIV-positive pregnant women and new mothers' help women access existing health care services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT); and follow up with mothers and babies to ensure they receive appropriate medical care after delivery. While there has been much interest in innovative psycho-social support programmes that complement PMTCT clinical services, only a few such programmes exist, and there are very little data about their effectiveness. Although m2m is a well known programme with anecdotal accounts of successfully supporting HIV-positive women, it had yet to undergo an external evaluation. The Horizons Program of Population Council, in collaboration with Health Systems Trust, completed the first evaluation of m2m as part of its introduction in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

Social protection : how important are the national plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children?

October 2006

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This is a review of 14 national plans of action (NPA), or in the absence of a NPA, outputs from the rapid assessment analysis and action planning (RAAAP) work for orphans and children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. It analyses the way that issues of social protection are incorporated into these plans and highlights areas within the plans where social protection activity may be needed to achieve stated outcomes. There are also country by country summaries of the social protection content of each NPA

Pregnancy-related school dropout and prior school performance in South Africa

GRANT, Monica
June 2006

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Although considerable attention has been paid to the prevalence of adolescent childbearing in the less-developed world, few studies have focused on the educational consequences of schoolgirl pregnancy. Using data collected in 2001 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, this paper examines the factors associated with schoolgirl pregnancy, as well as the likelihood of school dropout and subsequent re-enrollment among pregnant schoolgirls. This analysis triangulates data collected from birth histories, education histories, and data concerning pregnancy to strengthen the identification of young women who became pregnant while enrolled in school and to define discrete periods of school interruption prior to first pregnancy. We find that prior school performance - defined as instances of grade repetition or non-pregnancy-related temporary withdrawals from school - is strongly associated with a young woman's likelihood of becoming pregnant while enrolled in school, dropping out of school if she becomes pregnant, and not returning to school following a pregnancy-related dropout. Young women who are the primary caregivers to their children are also significantly more likely to have left school than are women who shared or relinquished childcare responsibilities. Furthermore, young women who lived with an adult female were significantly more likely to return to school following a pregnancy-related dropout. Given the increasing levels of female school participation in sub-Saharan Africa, our findings suggest that future studies will benefit from exploring the causal relationships between prior school experiences, adolescent reproductive behavior, and subsequent school attendance

Mapping dialogue : a research project profiling dialogue tools and processes for social change

BOJER, Marianne Mille
MCKAY, Elaine
ROEHL, Heiko
April 2006

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This report profiles ten methods for facilitating dialogue. The approaches are diverse: some are designed for small groups, others for large numbers of people; some explore conflict while others are based on what is agreed. Part 1 looks at the foundations for, and approaches to, dialogue and offers some background on dialogue in traditional African culture. Part 2 maps out ten dialogue methods in depth and a number of others more briefly. Part 3 offers some ideas for how to assess what method to use in a given context

Disability and social change : a South African agenda

et al

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This book has been produced to promote the social rights of people with disabilities. It presents extensive research on the South African context of disability and society and draws upon contributions from a diverse range of specialists in the field. A key aim of the text is to unite the disability movement in South Africa through research discourse, as a means to drive processes of social change. Key sections of the book cover: theoretical approaches to disability; governmental and societal responses to disability; disability and education; disability poverty and social security; disability and service provision; disability and human spaces. This book would be of interest to anybody working in the fields of disability, development and social inclusion

Getting the message across : the mass media and the response to AIDS

December 2005

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The mass media have the potential to provide a platform for discussion, communication and education on HIV and AIDS, giving a voice to people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), challenging stigma and discrimination, lobbying policy makers and building partnerships and capacity through sharing and transferring skills and expertise. However, mass media can also disseminate misleading messages, while HIV/AIDS communication competes with other topics for broadcasting time and audiences. This report presents three case studies of effective and creative use of the media in South Africa: Soul City and Soul Buddyz adopt an 'edutainment' approach, aiming both to educate and entertain; the Community Health Media Trust produces a series of programmes addressing issues concerning people with HIV/AIDS; Takalani makes television and radio programmes, to encourage small children to develop self-esteem, offer positive models and destigmatise PLWHA. Detailing the lessons learned from these experiences, the report looks at how target audiences are chosen, how partnerships are formed, how topics and ideas are developed and what ethical issues arise

Civil society involvement in rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) for orphans and vulnerable children : an independent review

July 2005

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This review explores civil society organisations' experiences of the Rapid Assessement, Analysis and Action Planning (RAAAP) process - an initiative launched by USAID, UNICEF, UNAIDS, and the World Food Program - for orphans and other vulnerable children in November 2003. It comprises of a review of where civil society organisations were involved and where they were not and an overview of the process of their invovlement. It also offers recommendations for existing and future RAAAPs to ensure greater invovlement of civil society organisations, and includes individual reports on the 16 sub-Saharan African countries invovled in the first round of RAAAP in 2004

USAID project profiles : children affected by HIV/AIDS

January 2005

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This document presents profiles of 114 projects (90 country-specific, 12 regional, and 12 global) funded by USAID. It includes a section on USAID projects that support access to education in Africa. The project profiles include the names of implementing organisations, funding periods and amounts, objectives, strategies, key accomplishments, priority activities for the year ahead, and materials and tools available to other projects that can help meet the needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. The diversity of these projects demonstrates the US government's efforts to meet the wide variety of needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. Approaches vary in both strategy and scale. The vast majority of projects work with communities to identify opportunities that strengthen existing resources without undermining local ownership. In many places, communities are already mobilised and have systems in place to identify, protect, and provide basic necessities to the most vulnerable children. USAID supports the strengthening and monitoring of these existing activities

Reporting AIDS : an analysis of media environments in southern Africa


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This report shares the combined findings of five studies carried out by the Panos London AIDS Programme with the support of Johns Hopkins University. The studies took place in Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe: countries that, while having high HIV prevalence in common, provide diverse contexts in terms of their media environment, governance, culture and national response to HIV/AIDS. The studies explore some of the issues and tensions involved in the relationship between the media and HIV/AIDS, aiming to identify how the media could better fulfil a potential role in responding to the epidemic, for example by 'moving beyond awareness-raising' and acting as a channel to encourage individual and social change, providing a forum for debate and holding decision-makers to account

Antiretroviral roll-out in South Africa : where do children feature?

August 2004

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This is a discussion paper on South Africa's 2003 roll out plan for the 'Comprehensive Care and Treatment for HIV and AIDS' and its implementation. It considers how the plan addresses children's needs and assesses its weaknesses, particularly in relation to the topic of ART for HIV-infected children. The paper laments that children's specific needs are not adequately dealt with, stressing that a comprehensive, child-oriented approach must give consideration to the mother-infant relationship and acknowledge that the health of the mother is a necessary component of the well-being of children. The plan also fails to consider the issues of children in residential care facilities, counselling needs of children, the specific difficulties associated with testing and diagnosing babies and children, and aspects of drug availability and treatment adherence in children. The paper concludes with recommendations designed to help policy making, service delivery and advocacy strategies. In particular the document calls for child-specific attention in areas of monitoring, adherence and drug provision, recommends that greater emphasis is placed on children's needs in the upscaling of ART provision, particularly through primary health care services, and that watchdog bodies and children's rights organisations take a more active role

USAID announces HIV/AIDS grant finalists

May 2004

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Press release announcing the funding of four projects by USAID through the Community REACH program, which aims to promote scaling up successful creative community based programs which have a demonstratble impact on the HIV/AIDS pandemic

Breaking the cycle : ensuring equitable access to HIV treatment for women and girls

February 2004

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Outlines the situation of women and girls with regard to vulnerability to HIV and access to treatment. Makes recommendations for US policy reflecting the links between abuses against women and girls, and HIV/AIDS. Describes treatment programmes in Botswana and South Africa, and work around community mobilization and the involvement of civil society in ensuring access to ARV treatment

South African cities and HIV/AIDS : challenges and responses


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This is the first ever assessment on how South Africa's nine largest cities are managing HIV/AIDS. The report summarises the challenges faced by these cities and outlines the innovative responses developed by municipalities and city stakeholders. The report highlights that the most effective programmes have been those that succeeded in transcending the gap between policy development and consistent implementation. The challenges highlighted in the study are likely to become more acute in the near future. The report lists a number of key strategies that cities should adopt in the development of a comprehensive response to HIV/AIDS. These include taking stock of the current HIV/AIDS programmes that are being implemented in the cities; linking HIV programming with other development issues; developing clear guidelines for the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS; and developing stronger intergovernmental relations with provincial and national government levels

National household HIV prevalence and risk survey of South African children

BROOKS, Heather

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This valuable new report looks at the levels of infection of HIV and AIDS, the levels of orphaning and child headed households, sexual debut and sexual experiences and risk factors and risk environments for children aged 2-14 in South Africa. This has been investigated as the HSRC recognizes that there is very little known about HIV prevalence rates among children or about the risk factors that predispose them to becoming infected. The study looks at the social and community risk factors that predispose children to HIV infection as well as the impact of the epidemic on children in terms of orphan status and child headed households. It examines children’s knowledge of HIV and AIDS prevention, their knowledge about sexual behaviour and HIV as well as their own patterns of sexual behaviour and changes in that behaviour. This study is interesting as it explicitly includes young children

The development, implementation and evaluation of interventions for the care of orphans and vulnerable children in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe : a literature review of evidence-based interventions for home-based child-centred development


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This short paper gives a literature review of many programmes aimed at supporting orphans and vulnerable groups in the southern Africa region. It is not an in-depth survey, but provides a compact and accessible guide to the many different community initiatives that have been undertaken. It finishes with a short section on the lessons to be learned from care programmes

Persons with disability : study commissioned by the Corporate Planning Unit of the City of Joburg as a component of the human development agenda


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The aim of this research is to highlight problems with, and identify gaps in, the human development agenda as they relate to persons with disability in the City of Johannesburg. The research report also gives an overview of the methodologies applied.
The report is useful for organisations and persons who want to learn more about the situation of disabled persons in Johannesburg. Also it is of interest for researchers and organisations that are developing research methodology and policy

Family and community interventions for children affected by AIDS

PATHER, Riashnee

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This report, based on over 400 documents, reviews the available scientific and programmatic information on interventions aimed at children, families, households and communities. Specifically, the report considers: home-based child-centred development programmes focussing on health and nutrition; psychosocial care and management of inherited assets; interventions directed at supporting families and households to cope with the HIV/AIDS problem and interventions directed at building the capacities of communities to provide long-term care and support for children and households. It also contains an annotated bibliography of available literature in this area in Section 2. The main emphasis of the report is on intervention principles rather than on actual program implementation details as it is widely understood that interventions need to be tailored for each particular situation. There is no specific focus on very young children but interventions to support children, families and communities run into each other with inevitable overlaps



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