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Using evidence to change antimalarial drug policy in Kenya

SHRETTA, R
et al
November 2000

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This review analyses the range and quality of the evidence base that was used to change the drug policy in Kenya from chloroquine to SP and examines the process of consensus building and decision making. The review illustrates the difficulties in translating sensitivity data with gross geographical, temporal and methodological variations into national treatment policy. The process was complicated by limited options, unknown adverse effects of replacement therapies, cost, as well as limited guidance on factors pertinent to changing the drug policy for malaria. Although more than 50% of the studies showed parasitological failures by 1995, there was a general lack of consensus on the principles for assessing drug failures, the inclusion criteria for the study subjects and the relative benefits of parasitological and clinical assessments. A change in international recommendations for assessment of drug efficacy in 1996 from parasitological to clinical response further perplexed the decisions. There is an urgent need for international standards and evidence-based guidelines to provide a framework to assist the process by which decision-makers in malaria-endemic countries can make rational choices for antimalarial drug policy change

Agricultural knowledge and information systems in Kenya : implications for technology dissemination and development

REES, David
et al
July 2000

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This paper reports on a study of agricultural knowledge and information systems (AKIS) undertaken by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and the Ministry of Agriculture. Field research was conducted in four districts of Kenya, including high-potential and pastoral areas, to document and assess the significance of different actors and organisations as potential uptake/dissemination pathways for agricultural technologies, and to consider ways to improve the performance of the knowledge and information systems in the districts. Databases of the organisations, institutions and actors involved in agriculture in the four districts were compiled, and a series of participatory and rapid appraisal exercises were carried out with people concerned with agriculture in selected sub-locations and divisions within each district

Maintenance and sustained use of insecticide-treated bednets and curtains three years after a controlled trial in western Kenya

KACHUR, S Patrick
et al
November 1999

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While few questions remain about the efficacy of insecticide-treated materials (ITM) intervention, operational issues around how to implement and sustain ITM projects need attention. This article describes a study of the results of a small-scale ITM intervention trial, 3 years after the project ended, to assess how local attitudes and practices had changed

The role of international organisations and non-governmental organisations in information support for agricultural policy formulation in Kenya : study report

OWINO, Frederick
June 1999

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Describes the roles of NGOs and international organisations in supporting the production, communication and use of information for agricultural policy formulation in Kenya. Identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the current process, and ends with proposals for the future, to support the links between research and analysis, and among farmers, researchers and decision makers

Changing home treatment of childhood fevers by training shop keepers in rural Kenya

MARSH, V M
et al
May 1999

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Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. This study examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. It concludes that this approach is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact

Best practices on indigenous knowledge

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATION SCIENCE AND CULTURE ORGANIZATION (UNESCO). Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST)
NETHERLANDS ORGANIZATION FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION. Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks (NUFFIC/CIRAN)
Eds
1999

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This publication provides a series of case studies to illustrate how indigenous knowledge (IK) can be used to create sustainable development. It aims to suggest, by example, guidelines for development planning, as the practices described may give policy makers and development practitioners a deeper insight into the ecological and cultural complexity of sustainable development. Includes basic definition of IK and related terms, and indexes by country and theme

Effective drug regulation : what can countries do?

WONDEMAGEGNEHU, Eshetu
1999

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This paper presents an overview of the development of drug regulation and the rationale for drug regulation. It also reviews the drug regulation situation in selected countries, examines key contributing factors to observed drug regulation weaknesses, and identifies the measures that must be taken to improve drug regulation

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