This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Nigeria?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Nigeria. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Nigeria, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues.
The Disability Inclusive Development (DID) consortium, a UK Department for International Development (DFID) funded initiative, is working together on the Pre-Primary and Primary Inclusive Education in Tanzania (PPPIET) programme whose ultimate goal is to foster quality sustainable inclusive education for all children with disabilities at scale across Tanzania in mainstream pre-primary and primary government schools. To achieve this, it aims to support collective, coordinated systems change by establishing an agreed common model of basic inclusive pre-primary and primary education in mainstream government schools, and galvanising significant progress in spreading its systematic implementation for all children with disabilities across Tanzania.
This task requires the cooperation of government, civil society and Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs) to achieve real change. No single organisation or government department can achieve inclusive education on its own. Pooling the skills and resources and exchanging learnings to achieve quality inclusive education of children can help all involved. Working together will build collective commitment and action, not just amongst DID consortium members but also across government, donors, education actors and the private sector.
Part of this process was to conduct a participatory field research to gather evidence on the current provision of support services needed for inclusive education and identify gaps that need to be filled in the future. The exercise also served to identify key challenges that need addressing to facilitate the removal of legal, policy, systemic, physical, communication and language, social, financial and attitudinal barriers. The findings from the research were intended to identify the priority components that need addressing in the design of an inclusive education design model and the drivers of accountability, i.e. the agencies/stakeholders responsible for implementing the required system changes.
Summary of key findings
The Government of Tanzania has continually demonstrated its support and commitment to inclusive education evidenced by the many comprehensive policies for inclusive education, including the National Inclusive Education Strategy (NSIE) 2018 – 2021. Through these policies, it is actively working to improve the educational environment but the journey is long and requires significant system changes for the policies to be effectively implemented, which needs collaboration, cooperation, planning, and strategic resourcing across multiple ministries, NGOs, DPOs, and the private sector.
To achieve inclusive education, a rights-based approach to education needs to be adopted, focusing on identifying and removing the barriers to access and quality learning for every child, including appropriate infrastructure changes in schools, changing attitudes, and providing additional support to girls and boys with disabilities through learning support assistants. There also needs to be a fundamental shift towards child-centred pedagogy in teacher training and curriculum development to meet the needs of all learners, including having a mandatory module on inclusive education in all teacher training curricula. Over time, this will help develop teachers’ confidence and positive attitudes towards teaching children with disabilities and achieve impact at scale. Strengthening the capacities of all teachers, improving classroom management, increasing awareness about inclusive education for all stakeholders, and improving access to screening and early identification, health, rehabilitation services, and affordable assistive devices are all contributing factors to achieving inclusive education in Tanzania.
Systems change to improve learning and support for children with disabilities takes time and requires a significant investment of resources and budget allocation by government and service providers. However, inclusive education can be cost-effective compared with the cost of segregation and special schools, particularly where ministries work together to ensure a more ‘strategic allocation of existing funds, promoting universal design and co-operation agreements among multiple ministries’. Developing partnerships with the private sector to improve the physical infrastructure of schools and access to affordable assistive devices can also help reduce the cost of inclusion.
Inclusive education is a cross-cutting issue that requires the commitment and accountability of multiple stakeholders across government ministries to ensure its effective implementation. This includes the MOEST, MOHCDGEC, MOFP, the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) and the President's Office, Regional Administration and Local Government (PORALG).
It is anticipated that to achieve successful implementation and scaling up of the model design for inclusive education, there will need to be a systematic and phased approach to implementing the recommendations in this report over the short, medium and long term. It is acknowledged that this process will take considerable time to implement and can only be successfully achieved over a period of years with the support and increased understanding of all stakeholders. There is no quick-fix solution to inclusive education. It requires changing long-established systems and adjusting services, including health and education, training, and attitudes. There is also no financial short cut.
However, while some recommendations require significant investment, others can be achieved in the current context without significant monetary investment. For example, changing the curriculum for all teacher training to ensure inclusive education is included as a standard module will help transform the approach of teachers and the inclusion of children with disabilities in learning. Raising awareness of inclusive education for all stakeholders, including policy-makers and implementers will also help increase understanding of the long-term system changes required and reduce stigma and discrimination. Inclusive education can only be achieved in an inclusive society and it needs collective effort from the government, parents, community, and all stakeholders for effective implementation.
Purpose: The predominant mode of human communication is speech, and whenever it is hindered, humans resort to the tactile-kinaesthetic mode. Use of sign language by persons with speech-hearing impairments is a classic example of such adaptation. The Demonstration School at the Regional Institute of Education in Mysuru, South India, undertook training of typically-developing students in Indian Sign Language (ISL), so as to facilitate communication and instruction of students with hearing impairment who are in mainstream learning environments.
Method: Training in ISL was imparted to140 typically-developing students in higher primary classes. Twenty-four 40-minute sessions were conducted over a month. After theoretical orientation in logical bases of manual communication, practical training commenced with elementary manual alphabets, progressed through essential daily-life vocabulary necessary to construct simple sentences and carry out general conversations, and culminated in signing the Indian National Anthem.
Results: Typically-developing students gained primary benefits such as improved awareness about non-verbal communication modes, mastery of basic skills in ISL, and positive attitudes towards sign languages.
Conclusion: The UNCRPD 2006 authorises sign language as the linguistic identity of the Deaf, and encourages the use of sign language in learning environments. Future research should add to the findings on secondary benefits in the form of scholastic and sociometric advantages derived by students with hearing impairments who receive instructions in sign language in mainstream learning environments.
One of the lingering aspects of coloniality in the Americas is paternalism. In Latin America, this power structure plays out among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through beliefs that people with disabilities need to be protected and guarded at home, and that they are unable to learn and function in society. We developed a program to empower parents of children with ASD through peer education to help their children realize their potential. This program was implemented in the United States (US) for Latino immigrant families and then adapted for use in Bogotá, Colombia. In this paper, we discuss some of the ways the manifestations of colonialism have influenced the adaptation of this program from North to South. For example, in Colombian society it is not common to use non-professionals or peers to deliver scientific information because within a paternalistic society there is ‘respeto’ (respect) for persons who are older, male and have credentials. Therefore, promoting the use of peer-mothers in this context was a challenge in the adaptation that warranted compromise. We explore and discuss similarities and differences in the adaptation and delivery between North and South and problematize the idea of Latinos in the US versus Colombia.
Disability and the Global South, 2019 Vol.6, No. 1
Ce Livret de Formation sur « l’approche personnalisée - centrée sur la personne » à destination des professionnel-le-s des services sociaux est le produit d’une formation réalisée par Humanité & Inclusion (nouveau nom de Handicap International - HI) en Algérie, dans le cadre du projet « L’éducation des enfants en situation de handicap au cœur des dynamiques de développement territorial au Maghreb ». Cette formation avait pour objectif de renforcer les capacités du personnel de la Direction de l’Action Sociale de la Solidarité de la ville d’Oran à accueillir et accompagner les personnes handicapées. Ce livret propose de questionner les postures et la qualité de la relation entre un professionnel de service social et un usager, et ce dans un objectif d’autonomisation de la personne accompagnée. Elle permet aussi une introduction au processus d’accompagnement social personnalisé. Il se compose d’une fiche pédagogique, d’un agenda détaillé et son contenu qualitatif, avec des propositions d’animations et des outils nécessaires à l’animation de cette formation.
Background: Only 2% of people with disabilities in developing countries have access to basic services and rehabilitation.
Objectives: To bridge this gap, Motivation has been running Peer Training activities since 1993 and has identified that there is a growing need for Peer Training. The overall aim of Peer Training is for wheelchair users (Peer Trainers) to provide others (with similar disabilities) with the relevant knowledge on health issues, rights and skills to achieve a basic level of independence and greater quality of life.
Method: To test the impact of Peer Training, Motivation created a knowledge, skills and well-being questionnaire, which has been trialled in two locations: Kenya and Malawi.
Results: Overall, Motivation found that most participants reported an increase in knowledge, skills and well-being, supporting their experience that this training provides vital information and support mechanisms for wheelchair users in low- and middle-income countries. Further work is needed to ensure this tool measures the impact of Peer Training and lessons learnt have been identified to strengthen the methodology.
Conclusion: Although Peer Training is not a replacement for rehabilitation services, Motivation believes it is an effective way to not only increase knowledge and skills of persons with disabilities but also reduce the sense of social isolation that can often be a result of disability.
Background: In many countries, availability of basic training and continued professional development programmes in wheelchair services is limited. Therefore, many health professionals lack access to formal training opportunities and new approaches to improve wheelchair service provision. To address this need, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the WHO Wheelchair Service Training of Trainers Programme (WSTPt), aiming to increase the number of trainers who are well prepared to deliver the WHO Wheelchair Service Training Packages. Despite these efforts, there was no recognised method to prepare trainers to facilitate these training programmes in a standardised manner.
Objectives: To understand if the WSTPt is an effective mechanism to train aspiring wheelchair service provision trainers.
Method: An action research study was conducted using a mixed-methods approach to data collection and analysis to integrate feedback from questionnaires and focus groups from three WHO WSTPt pilots.
Results: Trainees were satisfied with the WHO WSTPt and the iterative process appears to have helped to improve each subsequent pilot and the final training package.
Conclusion: The WHO WSTPt is an effective mechanism to train wheelchair service provision trainers. This programme has potential to increase the number of trainees and may increase the number of qualified service providers.
The 2030 Agenda pledges to foster shared responsibility, recognizes all as crucial enablers of sustainable development, and calls for the mobilization of all available resources. It also commits to multi-stakeholder partnerships and pledges to be open, inclusive, participatory and transparent in its follow-up and review. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) equitably involves community members, organizational representatives and researchers, enabling them to share power and resources through drawing on the unique strengths that each partner brings. It aims to integrate any increased knowledge and understanding into action, policy and social change to improve the health and quality of life of community members. CBPR involves recruiting community or peer researchers, involving them in planning and offering them training to undertake interviews and observations in their context. They are also part of the analysis and dissemination process, and continue to work with local partners on advocacy plans and events after projects and research have finished. People with disabilities are actively part of the research process throughout. Drawing on relevant literature and current CBPR disability research in East and West Africa, this paper puts forward CBPR as a methodology that can enable community members to identify key barriers to achieving the SDGs, and inform how policy and programmes can be altered to best meet the needs of people with disabilities. It demonstrates CBPR in practice and discusses the successes and complexities of implementing this approach in relation to the SDGs. The paper also highlights findings such as the high level of support needed for community research teams as they collect data and formally disseminate it, the honest raw data from peer to peer interaction, a deep level of local ownership at advocacy level, emerging issues surrounding meaningfully involving community researchers in analysis, and power differentials. A key conclusion is that to join partners with diverse expertise requires much planning, diplomacy, and critical, reflexive thought, while emphasising the necessity of generating local ownership of findings and the translation of knowledge into a catalyst for disability-related policy change.
Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2017, Vol. 4 No. 1
This booklet is the gateway for a training kit on personalised social support (PSS). The aim of this training course is to train social facilitators either in the personalised approach only, or in how to carry out a complete PSS process. The aim of this booklet is therefore to impart the methodological and educational components required to use the content of this training course to Handicap International’s (now Humanity and Inclusion) future PSS trainers. It therefore takes another look at the entire content of the PSS training course, explains the educational choices, presents the modules and other teaching tools created, and above all, provides advice/recommendations for future designers and trainers/facilitators on this theme. Throughout this booklet, internet links provide the reader with quick access to the content of training courses and other relevant resources
Parent peer advocacy is a distinct type of empowering relationship practised in Parent to Parent New Zealand that shares experiential knowledge gained from raising a child with disability, chronic illness or special needs and draws on both partnership and participation ideals of support. This support organisation matches families with impairment, illness and genetic difference in light of issues they encounter as families with disability. In this paper we discuss disabling historical contexts countered by the provision of information as advocacy, ambivalence towards difference in the organisation, and the rise in prospective parents seeking parent peer support. These thematic areas allow us to create an analytical framework to be used in the next phase of an empirical study with Parent to Parent New Zealand.
This wheelchair service training package is the second part of the WHO wheelchair service training package series and addresses the needs of people who have severe difficulties in walking and moving around and also having poor postural control. Special attention was given on the provision of appropriate wheelchairs for children who have poor postural control and are unable to sit upright independently. It is designed to support the training of personnel or volunteers to provide an appropriate manual wheelchair and cushion for children and adults who need additional postural support to sit upright
Note: A Trainers manual, Reference manual for participants, Participant’s workbook and Posters are available from the link above
Note: A DVD is available upon request which contains all the necessary forms and checklists; manuals and guides including the trainer’s manual; and sets of posters and presentations
The main purpose of the training package is to develop the minimum skills and knowledge required by personnel involved in wheelchair service delivery. An important aim of the training package is to get it integrated into the regular paramedical/rehabilitation training programs such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, prosthetics and orthotics, rehabilitation nursing
The package contains necessary forms and checklists, manuals and guides including trainer’s manual and set of posters and presentations. First click "Strat.pdf" which will come with four tabs - click tab "Manuals and guides" - open the Trainer’s manual to prepare yourself to deliver the training. Then click the "Timetable and sessions" tab to open the timetable. Click the hyperlinks of each session, which lead you to the exact slides and video location. The best way to deliver the training is to proceed through the lessons in sequential order respecting the timing allotted for each session as much as possible
Note: The whole training package is available on the Website for the training institutes and wheelchair service providers. It is recommended to download the complete package (requires 3 GB space)
This training of trainers manual has been designed as a guide for providers of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to ensure services are disability-inclusive. This training is divided in 5 parts: Part 1 - Introduction; Part 2 - Disability awareness and disability inclusion; Part 3 - Disability-inclusive HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services; Part 4 - Disability-inclusive sexual and reproductive health services; Part 5 - Disability-inclusive HIV prevention integrated into sexual and reproductive health services. This manual is useful for anyone interested in trainings on disability-inclusive HIV services and disability-inclusive sexual and reproductive health for health workers
Note: the manual is available to download in three parts using the links provided
"This TOT training manual was developed by HI Laos to facilitate the process of effective and meaningful inclusion, empowerment, promotion and protection of the rights of people with disabilities." Practical exercises, cases studies, questionnaires and checklists are provided
"This manual is for use by Trainers of Trainers. i.e. trainers of visually impaired Peer Educators. It has been developed to provide awareness and training on HIV&AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support and to equip blind and partially sighted participants with Peer Educations skills. It is hoped that blind and partially sighted participants will become effective Peer Educators in training other visually impaired persons in their communities"
The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website
This paper puts forward an argument in favour of careful and critical analysis of culture in formulating communication strategies with and for specific groups, based on experience drawn from the Clown Project in Guatemala and other countries in Central America. The Clown Project uses labour-intensive face-to-face street theatre and dialogue, participatory workshops, and symbolic communication such as print-based material to reach those most vulnerable to the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS . The analysis takes into account relations of power within and between vulnerable groups, examining the centre-periphery dynamic between classes, genders, ethnicities, age groups, and other social identities. Both appropriately supported insider perspectives and appropriately processed outsider knowledge are recommended, along with ways of bridging science and the field, theory and practice
Limited attention has been given to helping educators to deal with the new challenges posed by the epidemic. Even less attention has been given to protecting educators from HIV infection and to providing care, treatment and support for educators infected with or affected by HIV and AIDS. There are also very few programmes addressing the needs of other education sector personnel, such as planners, managers and support staff. This booklet looks at educator development and support; educator conduct; and prevention, care, treatment and support of infected and affected eduators
This guide has been written to help people who are providing training to trainers. It is based on ECPAT's experiences of training trainers in relation to combating the trafficking in children for sexual purposes, and draws from those experiences, but the methodology has also been used in the training of trainers on a broad range of issues. Consequently, this guide could be adapted to train trainers on other subjects related to children’s welfare and rights
This guide was developed to help train peer trainers to teach others about how to run a business. It is based on ILO proects and was field-tested in a 2007 project in Cambodia. Key aspects of the peer training method are highlighted with useful steps, illustrations and case studies. This manual is useful for people interested in training peer trainers
This manual "has been developed for use in the field in order to train animators who work with children and other child protection programme staff...The modules in this manual have been grouped according to the following 3 categories: 1. Facilitating a training, 2. Basic concepts for intervention, 3. Animator’s competencies. Each module is laid out under the following headings: What is it? Why is it useful? How can I use it?"
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion