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Missing millions: How older people with disabilities are excluded from humanitarian response

SHEPPARD, Phillip
POLACK, Sarah
McGIVERN, Madeleine
July 2018

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The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of older people with disabilities across a range of humanitarian settings, considering:

  • whether older people with disabilities have additional needs and challenges accessing humanitarian assistance and protection
  • what factors facilitate or limit access by older people with disabilities to humanitarian assistance and protection
  • to what extent is humanitarian response inclusive of older people with disabilities

A systematic literature review of published studies was conducted. Key online humanitarian guidelines were explored to review how far they explicitly address older people with disabilities. Data from six population-based disability surveys comparing the living situation of older people with and without disabilities were analysed. These included databases from two crises-affected populations in Haiti (post-earthquake) and Palestine. Data from four non-humanitarian settings was also reviewed to explore more broadly the situation for older people with disabilities – India, Guatemala, Cameroon and Nepal. Interviews were held with older people with disabilities, members of their families and local key informants in two conflict-affected populations in Ndutu and Mtendeli refugee camps in Western Tanzania, and Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Eastern Ukraine to find out about their experiences. Staff of five international agencies working in humanitarian response were also interviewed. 

 

Findings highlight particular issues facing older people with disabilities in humanitarian crises: more risk escaping from danger;  barriers to accessing social protection and work; barriers to accessing health and rehabilitation services; barriers to accessing food and other essentials; unsuitable housing and poor living conditions;  insecurity and discrimination; threats to dignity and independence; social isolation and loneliness; risks to mental health; and missing from humanitarian response.

 

A table brings together the findings from the different components of the research to show the needs, risks, barriers and enablers for older people with disabilities identified in the research. Recommendations are provided to humanitarian donors, policy makers and practitioners

Exploring the links between water, sanitation and hygiene and disability; Results from a case-control study in Guatemala

KUPER, Hannah
et al
June 2018

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A case-control study was conducted, nested within a national survey. The study included 707 people with disabilities, and 465 age- and sex-matched controls without disabilities. Participants reported on WASH access at the household and individual level. A sub-set of 121 cases and 104 controls completed a newly designed, in-depth WASH questionnaire.

Global Report on the participation of organisations of persons with disabilities (DPOs) in VNR Processes

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE
2017

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Within the Stakeholder Group of Persons with Disabilities, a working group was created on the Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) aimed at raising awareness among Organisations of Persons with Disabilities (DPOs) to engage with their governments in the national consultation processes on SDG implementation, with particular focus on the 2017 44 volunteering countries. The VNR working group are compiling an outcome document reflecting the work that DPOs carried out at the national, regional and global levels. A comprehensive report – called the Global Report on DPO Participation in VNR Processes – will be issued in draft form prior to the HLPF and will be updated afterward with concrete findings. 

The report will showcase the national level DPO work carried out in different regions as well as best practices and challenges, and will serve as a case study for Member States. It will additionally be useful for DPOs as a model to engage with their government. The case study will feature the volunteering countries of Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Nigeria, Togo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Argentina, El Salvador, Peru, Guatemala, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India and Jordan.

Guatemala National Disability Study ENDIS 2016 Report

DONICIO Carlos
GRECH Shaun
Islay MACTAGGART
Jonathan NABER
Dr Ana Rafaela SALAZAR DE BARRIOS
Gonna ROTA,
Sarah POLLACK
April 2017

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The Guatemala National Disability Study (ENDIS 2016) was undertaken to address a need for up to date reliable data on disability in Guatemala.

Through a population based survey:

* To estimate the national disability prevalence among adults and children in Guatemala, and to provide regional estimates for 5 broad regions

* To disaggregate the prevalence of disability in Guatemala by age, sex, type of functional limitation and socio-economic status

* To explore the impact of disability on: poverty, quality of life, participation, health and opportunities to go to school and to work amongst children and adults respectively

Through a qualitative study:

* To explore cultural, ideological, and social interpretations and responses to disability; provide insight into the disability and poverty relationship; and examine social, political, and economic dimensions operating within this relationship.

Assessing fiscal policies from a human rights perspective

Center for Economic and Social Rights
July 2016

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"The study undertaken by the Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR) and the Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales (ICEFI) aimed to contribute to a broader reflection on the role of fiscal policy in complying with a state’s economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR) obligations. Despite being a middle-income country with the largest economy in Central America, Guatemala’s social indicators were alarming; with more than half the population living below the national poverty line and one in seven Guatemalans living in extreme poverty. The persistence of systemic inequality and discrimination could be partially explained by the legacy of almost 40 years of armed conflict, which did not end until the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996. Nevertheless, the stark contrasts between rich and poor suggested that the dismal state of ESC rights could not be attributed to limited state resources, but to the way in which they were distributed, this highlighted the need to hold the state accountable for its efforts to generate and manage resources equitably and in accordance with its human rights obligations.... Methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala

Who is being left behind in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America? 3 reports from ODI

LYNCH, Alainna
BERLINER, Tom
MAROTTI, Chiara
BHAKTAL Tanvi
RODRIGUEZ TAKEUCHI Laura
et al
February 2016

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The commitment to ‘leave no one behind’ has been a key feature of all the discussions on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Here are three papers setting out the first step to implementing this agenda - the step of identifying marginalised communities. The focus is on two case study countries for each of the three regions, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the papers identify gaps in achieving a number of outcomes relating to key SDGs targets for marginalised groups. The paper on Asia highlights people with disabilities in Bangladesh.

Disability, poverty, and livelihoods guide : guidance from Trickle Up

SANSON, Jo
FELIX, Michael
November 2013

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"This guide is intended to encourage and assist organizations seeking to include people with disabilities in their economic strengthening and livelihood programs. It contains lessons for organizations that aim to move households out of poverty, [and] those that seek to economically and socially empower particularly vulnerable members of poor household"

Assessment of election access barriers in Guatemala

SERPE, Lauren
November 2012

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This research report presents the lessons learned from various activities to improve the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the electoral process and future programming needs in Guatemala. Three research activities captured the different perspectives of those working on or affected by inclusion issues: a survey of 250 electoral authorities; six focus groups consisting of persons with disabilities and those who work with persons with disabilities; and six in-depth interviews with leaders of disabled persons organizations (DPOs) with whom IFES had worked during the previous electoral cycle

Assessing fiscal policies from a human rights perspective : methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala

CORKERY, Allison Corkery
EVA, Maria Jose
2012

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This report is a “methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala…To assess Guatemala’s compliance with its development and human rights commitments, the study adopted a multidisciplinary approach, combining a range of quantitative and qualitative research techniques drawn from the fields of human rights law, public policy analysis and development economics. This paper provides a step-by-step explanation of the methodological approach designed for the “Rights or Privileges” project, in order to illustrate the application of CESR’s analytical framework OPERA (so called because it triangulates evidence gathered on Outcomes, Policy Efforts and Resources to make an overall Assessment)”

Promoting good practices to reach personal mobility of persons with disabilities in the metropolitan area of Guatemala

QUAN CHANG, Silvia Judith
2010

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This presentation discusses the Making It Work multi-stakeholder initiative which documented and promoted good practice of accessible transportation in order to improve accessibility in three municipalities in Guatemala. Good practice examples were collected from other South American cities relating to: legislation and policies; disabled people’s organisations participation and political advocacy results; and technical solutions.  The presentation summarises the objectives and approach of the report, and advocacy activities, and it does not give examples of good practice or recommendations

Note: The original report is in Spanish and has not been translated

A trade agreement’s impact on access to generic drugs

SHAFFER, Ellen R
BRENNER, Joseph E
August 2009

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This article reports on a study which examined the availability of certain drugs in Guatemala and found that the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) intellectual property rules reduced access to some generic drugs already on the market and delayed the new entry of other generics. It found that some drugs protected from competition in Guatemala will become open for generic competition in the United States before generic versions will be legally available in Guatemala

Sexual-health communication across and within cultures : the clown project, Guatemala

SAVDIE, Anthony
CHETLEY, Andrew
June 2009

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This paper puts forward an argument in favour of careful and critical analysis of culture in formulating communication strategies with and for specific groups, based on experience drawn from the Clown Project in Guatemala and other countries in Central America. The Clown Project uses labour-intensive face-to-face street theatre and dialogue, participatory workshops, and symbolic communication such as print-based material to reach those most vulnerable to the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS . The analysis takes into account relations of power within and between vulnerable groups, examining the centre-periphery dynamic between classes, genders, ethnicities, age groups, and other social identities. Both appropriately supported insider perspectives and appropriately processed outsider knowledge are recommended, along with ways of bridging science and the field, theory and practice

Advocacy for change : lessons from Guatemala, Brazil, and USA

LEON, Rosario
Ed
2009

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This resource summarises a systematization of advocacy experiences related to the status of youth (in Guatemala), the right to education (in Brazil) and farming (in the United States). The systematizations allowed the actors involved to consider the evolution of the experiences and to identify lessons and insights for future interventions. The Guatemala systematization product was documented in writing and film, the US experience in writing, and the Brazil experience in film

Transitions in the early years : a learning opportunity [whole issue]

November 2006

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This issue of Early Childhood Matters presents a number of perspectives around children's transition from home environments to primary schooling and includes practical examples of initiatives in a number of countries, including the US, India, Uganda, Guatemala, Poland, Brazil and Israel. Articles look at transition and school readiness as a challenge and a learning opportunity rather than as a problem. In different contexts the emphasis of related early childhood programmes varies. The 'Parques Infantis' in Brazil focuses on children's rights, while in Guatemala and Uganda programmes reflect a need to promote local culture and support children learning the mainstream language. The Mississippi Delta Children's Partnership encourages interaction between pre-schools, primary schools and parents as a means to facilitate transition and supports school readiness through after-school programmes

National institutional frameworks and human rights of persons with disabilities

DEPARTMENT FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS (DESA), UNITED NATIONS
August 2006

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This resource compares national disability institutions and frameworks in Australia, Sweden, India, Guatemala and the UK. It aims to: identify the core institutions concerned with disability rights and describe how they were established; review the legislative framework; and examine the organisational structure, mandates and activities of the states’ monitoring institution/s

Multiple disadvantages of Mayan females : the effects of gender, ethnicity, poverty, and residence on education in Guatemala

HALLMAN, Kelly
June 2006

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Although access to primary education in Guatemala has increased in recent years, particularly in rural areas, levels of educational attainment and literacy remain among the lowest in Latin America. Problems include late entry, grade repetition, and early dropout. Inequalities in school access and grade attainment linked to ethnicity, gender, poverty, and residence remain. Age trends show that Mayan females are the least likely to ever enroll, and, if they do enroll, to start school the latest and drop out earliest. Mayan females are not a homogeneous group, however. Summary statistics indicate that the one-fourth of Mayan girls who are non-poor have primary school entry rates, school entry age, and grade-for-age levels equal to those of Ladina females, and, conditional upon primary school completion, have secondary school enrollment levels about 80 percent of those of Ladina females. The one-quarter of Mayan girls who are extremely poor, on the other hand, have the worst educational outcomes of all. Multivariate results indicate that being Mayan and female is a barrier to enrollment, particularly among those who are poor. Enrollment rates drop sharply at age 12, and the dropout curve is steepest for Mayan females. While age 12 would be a time of transition from primary to secondary school for children who entered school on time and made regular progress, most nonenrolled children aged 12 and older, especially those who are Mayan, have very low grade attainment and few have completed primary school. The main constraint to Mayan educational achievement therefore appears to be primary school completion. Among nonenrolled young people aged 13-24, household duties and lack of money were the constraints most frequently mentioned by females. Early marriage did not appear to directly affect female enrollment, but related qualitative findings indicate that Mayan parents’ expectations of daughters’ future roles may reduce parental incentives to invest in education beyond the age of puberty. For adolescent males, regardless of ethnicity, market work was by far the most frequently cited cause for nonenrollment, followed by lack of money. Lack of physical access to school was not a frequently cited constraint for children in any age group. In addition to poverty-reduction programs, mechanisms to encourage poor families to start their children’s schooling at age 7 may lead to fewer competing interests with regard to time allocation as children approach puberty and are compelled to assume adult work roles

Creating an enabling environment for the advancement of women and girls : a briefing paper to the United Nations commission on the status of women at its 50th session

HOFFMAN HANCHETT, Ruthi
BRANDT, Don
SOJWAL, Sanjay
March 2006

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This briefing paper contains reports and recommendations, from World Vision's gender and development, relief, and advocacy experts in the Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, United Kingdom, Guatemala, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, and the former states of the Soviet Union. They focus on the challenges and promising practices for the advancement of women and girls in the areas of education, health, work, and those trapped in situations of violence

Status report on poverty and disability in the Americas - voices from the Americas

LAURIN-BOWIE, Connie
Ed
November 2004

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This study is the first of four regional studies that draw attention to poverty and the increased vulnerability of disabled people and their families. The study seeks to draw attention to the extreme and systemic poverty disabled people face in Latin America and the Caribbean; to understand the relationship between disability and poverty; and to formulate policy that will reduce poverty and support disability programmes in the region. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability and development

Youth and technology : IPPF/WHR experiences to promote sexual and reproductive health

INTERNATIONAL PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION. WESTERN HEMISPHERE REGION (IPPF/WHR)
2004

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This report evaluates the experience of member associations of the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region, in the development of programmes that use computer technologies to reach young people with sexual and reproductive health information. It identifies key issues for youth-and-technology projects and makes strategic recommendations for future development. The review of case studies from IPPF/WHR member associations in Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala and Peru provides important insight related to the preliminary effects of and lessons learned from the implementation of first-generation youth and technology projects in the region. Strategic recommendations for the development of second-generation projects in this area are also proposed

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