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Association of anxiety and depression with physical and sensory functional difficulties in adults in five population-based surveys in low and middle-income countries

WALLACE, Sarah
MACTAGGART, Islay
MORGON BANKS, Lena
POLACK, Sarah
KUPER, Hannah
June 2020

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The aim of this study was to assess the association between anxiety and depression with physical and sensory functional difficulties, among adults living in five low and middle-income countries (LMICs).

A secondary data analysis was undertaken using population-based disability survey data from five LMICs, including two national surveys (Guatemala, Maldives) and 3 regional/district surveys (Nepal, India, Cameroon). 19,337 participants were sampled in total (range 1,617–7,604 in individual studies). Anxiety, depression, and physical and sensory functional difficulties were assessed using the Washington Group Extended Question Set on Functioning. Age-sex adjusted logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association of anxiety and depression with hearing, visual or mobility functional difficulties.

The findings demonstrated an increased adjusted odds of severe depression and severe anxiety among adults with mobility, hearing and visual functional difficulties in all settings (with ORs ranging from 2.0 to 14.2) except for in relation to hearing loss in India, the Maldives and Cameroon, where no clear association was found. For all settings and types of functional difficulties, there was a stronger association with severe anxiety and depression than with moderate. Both India and Cameroon had higher reported prevalences of physical and sensory functional difficulties compared with Nepal and Guatemala, and weaker associations with anxiety and depression

Missing millions: How older people with disabilities are excluded from humanitarian response

SHEPPARD, Phillip
POLACK, Sarah
McGIVERN, Madeleine
July 2018

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The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of older people with disabilities across a range of humanitarian settings, considering:

  • whether older people with disabilities have additional needs and challenges accessing humanitarian assistance and protection
  • what factors facilitate or limit access by older people with disabilities to humanitarian assistance and protection
  • to what extent is humanitarian response inclusive of older people with disabilities

A systematic literature review of published studies was conducted. Key online humanitarian guidelines were explored to review how far they explicitly address older people with disabilities. Data from six population-based disability surveys comparing the living situation of older people with and without disabilities were analysed. These included databases from two crises-affected populations in Haiti (post-earthquake) and Palestine. Data from four non-humanitarian settings was also reviewed to explore more broadly the situation for older people with disabilities – India, Guatemala, Cameroon and Nepal. Interviews were held with older people with disabilities, members of their families and local key informants in two conflict-affected populations in Ndutu and Mtendeli refugee camps in Western Tanzania, and Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Eastern Ukraine to find out about their experiences. Staff of five international agencies working in humanitarian response were also interviewed. 

 

Findings highlight particular issues facing older people with disabilities in humanitarian crises: more risk escaping from danger;  barriers to accessing social protection and work; barriers to accessing health and rehabilitation services; barriers to accessing food and other essentials; unsuitable housing and poor living conditions;  insecurity and discrimination; threats to dignity and independence; social isolation and loneliness; risks to mental health; and missing from humanitarian response.

 

A table brings together the findings from the different components of the research to show the needs, risks, barriers and enablers for older people with disabilities identified in the research. Recommendations are provided to humanitarian donors, policy makers and practitioners

Exploring the links between water, sanitation and hygiene and disability; Results from a case-control study in Guatemala

KUPER, Hannah
et al
June 2018

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A case-control study was conducted, nested within a national survey. The study included 707 people with disabilities, and 465 age- and sex-matched controls without disabilities. Participants reported on WASH access at the household and individual level. A sub-set of 121 cases and 104 controls completed a newly designed, in-depth WASH questionnaire.

Global Report on the participation of organisations of persons with disabilities (DPOs) in VNR Processes

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE
2017

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Within the Stakeholder Group of Persons with Disabilities, a working group was created on the Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) aimed at raising awareness among Organisations of Persons with Disabilities (DPOs) to engage with their governments in the national consultation processes on SDG implementation, with particular focus on the 2017 44 volunteering countries. The VNR working group are compiling an outcome document reflecting the work that DPOs carried out at the national, regional and global levels. A comprehensive report – called the Global Report on DPO Participation in VNR Processes – will be issued in draft form prior to the HLPF and will be updated afterward with concrete findings. 

The report will showcase the national level DPO work carried out in different regions as well as best practices and challenges, and will serve as a case study for Member States. It will additionally be useful for DPOs as a model to engage with their government. The case study will feature the volunteering countries of Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Nigeria, Togo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Argentina, El Salvador, Peru, Guatemala, Indonesia, Bangladesh, India and Jordan.

Guatemala National Disability Study ENDIS 2016 Report

DONICIO Carlos
GRECH Shaun
Islay MACTAGGART
Jonathan NABER
Dr Ana Rafaela SALAZAR DE BARRIOS
Gonna ROTA,
Sarah POLLACK
April 2017

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The Guatemala National Disability Study (ENDIS 2016) was undertaken to address a need for up to date reliable data on disability in Guatemala.

Through a population based survey:

* To estimate the national disability prevalence among adults and children in Guatemala, and to provide regional estimates for 5 broad regions

* To disaggregate the prevalence of disability in Guatemala by age, sex, type of functional limitation and socio-economic status

* To explore the impact of disability on: poverty, quality of life, participation, health and opportunities to go to school and to work amongst children and adults respectively

Through a qualitative study:

* To explore cultural, ideological, and social interpretations and responses to disability; provide insight into the disability and poverty relationship; and examine social, political, and economic dimensions operating within this relationship.

Assessing fiscal policies from a human rights perspective

Center for Economic and Social Rights
July 2016

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"The study undertaken by the Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR) and the Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales (ICEFI) aimed to contribute to a broader reflection on the role of fiscal policy in complying with a state’s economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR) obligations. Despite being a middle-income country with the largest economy in Central America, Guatemala’s social indicators were alarming; with more than half the population living below the national poverty line and one in seven Guatemalans living in extreme poverty. The persistence of systemic inequality and discrimination could be partially explained by the legacy of almost 40 years of armed conflict, which did not end until the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996. Nevertheless, the stark contrasts between rich and poor suggested that the dismal state of ESC rights could not be attributed to limited state resources, but to the way in which they were distributed, this highlighted the need to hold the state accountable for its efforts to generate and manage resources equitably and in accordance with its human rights obligations.... Methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala

Who is being left behind in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America? 3 reports from ODI

LYNCH, Alainna
BERLINER, Tom
MAROTTI, Chiara
BHAKTAL Tanvi
RODRIGUEZ TAKEUCHI Laura
et al
February 2016

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The commitment to ‘leave no one behind’ has been a key feature of all the discussions on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Here are three papers setting out the first step to implementing this agenda - the step of identifying marginalised communities. The focus is on two case study countries for each of the three regions, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the papers identify gaps in achieving a number of outcomes relating to key SDGs targets for marginalised groups. The paper on Asia highlights people with disabilities in Bangladesh.

Disability, poverty and education: perceived barriers and (dis)connections in rural Guatemala

GRECH, Shaun
2014

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This paper engages with the impacts of disability on the formal education of disabled people in poor rural areas. Reporting on qualitative ethnographic work in Guatemala, adults with a physical impairment provided retrospective accounts of their educational trajectories. Findings highlight multidimensional and dynamic barriers to education confronted by all poor people, but which often intensified for disabled people. These met a host of disability-specific barriers cutting across social, physical, economic, political and personal spheres. Findings report how in the face of more persistent basic needs and costs, education had a high opportunity cost, and often could not be sustained. Disabled parents also came to prioritise the education of their children translating into limited or no school re-entry for these parents. The paper concludes that engagement with temporal and context specific (but fluid) spaces of poverty is necessary, because it is within these spaces that disability and education are constructed and lived, and within and through which barriers emerge. Cross-sectoral efforts are needed, addressing educational barriers for all poor people indiscriminately, while targeting families to remove obstacles to other basic needs competing with education. Critically, efforts are needed to ensure that educational outcomes are linked to immediate contributions to the family economy and welfare through work.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2014, Vol. 1 No. 1

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2014, Vol. 1, No. 1

2014

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Articles include:

  • EDITORIAL :  Introducing Disability and the Global South (DGS): we are critical, we are open access!
  • Youth with Disabilities in Law and Civil Society:  Exclusion and inclusion in public policy and NGO networks in Cambodia and Indonesia
  • Performing the Stare in Indra Sinha’s Animal’s People  
  • Disability Sport in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Economic Underdevelopment to Uneven Empowerment
  • Does Africa Dream of Androids?
  • Mendicidad y discapacidad en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires: un síntoma de nuevas formas de  vulnerabilidad social
  • Facilitating Disability Inclusion in Poverty Reduction Processes: Group Consensus Perspectives from Disability Stakeholders in Uganda, Malawi, Ethiopia, and Sierra Leone
  • Disability, poverty and Education: perceived barriers and (dis)connections in rural Guatemala 

Assessment of election access barriers in Guatemala

SERPE, Lauren
November 2012

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This research report presents the lessons learned from various activities to improve the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the electoral process and future programming needs in Guatemala. Three research activities captured the different perspectives of those working on or affected by inclusion issues: a survey of 250 electoral authorities; six focus groups consisting of persons with disabilities and those who work with persons with disabilities; and six in-depth interviews with leaders of disabled persons organizations (DPOs) with whom IFES had worked during the previous electoral cycle

Assessing fiscal policies from a human rights perspective : methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala

CORKERY, Allison Corkery
EVA, Maria Jose
2012

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This report is a “methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala…To assess Guatemala’s compliance with its development and human rights commitments, the study adopted a multidisciplinary approach, combining a range of quantitative and qualitative research techniques drawn from the fields of human rights law, public policy analysis and development economics. This paper provides a step-by-step explanation of the methodological approach designed for the “Rights or Privileges” project, in order to illustrate the application of CESR’s analytical framework OPERA (so called because it triangulates evidence gathered on Outcomes, Policy Efforts and Resources to make an overall Assessment)”

Promoting good practices to reach personal mobility of persons with disabilities in the metropolitan area of Guatemala

QUAN CHANG, Silvia Judith
2010

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This presentation discusses the Making It Work multi-stakeholder initiative which documented and promoted good practice of accessible transportation in order to improve accessibility in three municipalities in Guatemala. Good practice examples were collected from other South American cities relating to: legislation and policies; disabled people’s organisations participation and political advocacy results; and technical solutions.  The presentation summarises the objectives and approach of the report, and advocacy activities, and it does not give examples of good practice or recommendations

Note: The original report is in Spanish and has not been translated

Sexual-health communication across and within cultures : the clown project, Guatemala

SAVDIE, Anthony
CHETLEY, Andrew
June 2009

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This paper puts forward an argument in favour of careful and critical analysis of culture in formulating communication strategies with and for specific groups, based on experience drawn from the Clown Project in Guatemala and other countries in Central America. The Clown Project uses labour-intensive face-to-face street theatre and dialogue, participatory workshops, and symbolic communication such as print-based material to reach those most vulnerable to the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS . The analysis takes into account relations of power within and between vulnerable groups, examining the centre-periphery dynamic between classes, genders, ethnicities, age groups, and other social identities. Both appropriately supported insider perspectives and appropriately processed outsider knowledge are recommended, along with ways of bridging science and the field, theory and practice

Advocacy for change : lessons from Guatemala, Brazil, and USA

LEON, Rosario
Ed
2009

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This resource summarises a systematization of advocacy experiences related to the status of youth (in Guatemala), the right to education (in Brazil) and farming (in the United States). The systematizations allowed the actors involved to consider the evolution of the experiences and to identify lessons and insights for future interventions. The Guatemala systematization product was documented in writing and film, the US experience in writing, and the Brazil experience in film

Transitions in the early years : a learning opportunity [whole issue]

November 2006

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This issue of Early Childhood Matters presents a number of perspectives around children's transition from home environments to primary schooling and includes practical examples of initiatives in a number of countries, including the US, India, Uganda, Guatemala, Poland, Brazil and Israel. Articles look at transition and school readiness as a challenge and a learning opportunity rather than as a problem. In different contexts the emphasis of related early childhood programmes varies. The 'Parques Infantis' in Brazil focuses on children's rights, while in Guatemala and Uganda programmes reflect a need to promote local culture and support children learning the mainstream language. The Mississippi Delta Children's Partnership encourages interaction between pre-schools, primary schools and parents as a means to facilitate transition and supports school readiness through after-school programmes

National institutional frameworks and human rights of persons with disabilities

DEPARTMENT FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS (DESA), UNITED NATIONS
August 2006

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This resource compares national disability institutions and frameworks in Australia, Sweden, India, Guatemala and the UK. It aims to: identify the core institutions concerned with disability rights and describe how they were established; review the legislative framework; and examine the organisational structure, mandates and activities of the states’ monitoring institution/s

Creating an enabling environment for the advancement of women and girls : a briefing paper to the United Nations commission on the status of women at its 50th session

HOFFMAN HANCHETT, Ruthi
BRANDT, Don
SOJWAL, Sanjay
March 2006

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This briefing paper contains reports and recommendations, from World Vision's gender and development, relief, and advocacy experts in the Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, United Kingdom, Guatemala, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, and the former states of the Soviet Union. They focus on the challenges and promising practices for the advancement of women and girls in the areas of education, health, work, and those trapped in situations of violence

Youth and technology : IPPF/WHR experiences to promote sexual and reproductive health

INTERNATIONAL PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION. WESTERN HEMISPHERE REGION (IPPF/WHR)
2004

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This report evaluates the experience of member associations of the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region, in the development of programmes that use computer technologies to reach young people with sexual and reproductive health information. It identifies key issues for youth-and-technology projects and makes strategic recommendations for future development. The review of case studies from IPPF/WHR member associations in Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala and Peru provides important insight related to the preliminary effects of and lessons learned from the implementation of first-generation youth and technology projects in the region. Strategic recommendations for the development of second-generation projects in this area are also proposed

IDRM : regional report of the Americas

CENTRE FOR INTERNATIONAL REHABILITATION
2004

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This International disability rights monitor takes a snapshot of the situation of disabled people in the Americas for disabled people and the extent to which they are included in society. The report examines education, employment, legislation and other areas. It gives non-governmental organisations, policy makers and individuals an opportunity to research the living conditions of disabled people in this part of the world

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