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Disability and global health: Special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

KUPER, Hannah
POLAK, Sarah
Eds
2019

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Papers included in this special issue are:

 

Missing millions: How older people with disabilities are excluded from humanitarian response

SHEPPARD, Phillip
POLACK, Sarah
McGIVERN, Madeleine
July 2018

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The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of older people with disabilities across a range of humanitarian settings, considering:

  • whether older people with disabilities have additional needs and challenges accessing humanitarian assistance and protection
  • what factors facilitate or limit access by older people with disabilities to humanitarian assistance and protection
  • to what extent is humanitarian response inclusive of older people with disabilities

A systematic literature review of published studies was conducted. Key online humanitarian guidelines were explored to review how far they explicitly address older people with disabilities. Data from six population-based disability surveys comparing the living situation of older people with and without disabilities were analysed. These included databases from two crises-affected populations in Haiti (post-earthquake) and Palestine. Data from four non-humanitarian settings was also reviewed to explore more broadly the situation for older people with disabilities – India, Guatemala, Cameroon and Nepal. Interviews were held with older people with disabilities, members of their families and local key informants in two conflict-affected populations in Ndutu and Mtendeli refugee camps in Western Tanzania, and Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Eastern Ukraine to find out about their experiences. Staff of five international agencies working in humanitarian response were also interviewed. 

 

Findings highlight particular issues facing older people with disabilities in humanitarian crises: more risk escaping from danger;  barriers to accessing social protection and work; barriers to accessing health and rehabilitation services; barriers to accessing food and other essentials; unsuitable housing and poor living conditions;  insecurity and discrimination; threats to dignity and independence; social isolation and loneliness; risks to mental health; and missing from humanitarian response.

 

A table brings together the findings from the different components of the research to show the needs, risks, barriers and enablers for older people with disabilities identified in the research. Recommendations are provided to humanitarian donors, policy makers and practitioners

Livelihood opportunities amongst adults with and without disabilities in Cameroon and India: A case control study

McTAGGART, Islay
et al
April 2018

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There is limited quantitative evidence on livelihood opportunities amongst adults with disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries. This study adds to the limited evidence base, contributing data from one African and one Asian setting. A population-based case–control study of adults (18+) with and without disabilities was undertaken in North-West Cameroon and in Telangana State, India. It was found that adults with disabilities were five times less likely to be working compared to age-sex matched controls in both settings. Amongst adults with disabilities, current age, marital status and disability type were key predictors of working. Inclusive programmes are therefore needed to provide adequate opportunities to participate in livelihood prospects for adults with disabilities in Cameroon and India, on an equal basis as others

 

Prevalence of HIV infection among people with disabilities : a population-based observational study in Yaounde, Cameroon (HandiVIH)

DE BEAUDROP, Pierre
et al
January 2017

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In the HandiVIH study, an estimation and a comparison of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors between people with and without disabilities. In this cross-sectional, population-based, observational study, two-phase random sampling was used to recruit adults with disabilities and a control group matched for age, sex, and residential location from households of the general population. The Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability was used to identify people with disabilities. An HIV test was administrated and a life-course history interview carried out with participants. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV among participants with and without disabilities. The study took place in Yaoundé, Cameroon, between Oct 2, 2014, and Nov 30, 2015. 

The Lancet HIV · January 2017 

DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30209-0

The north west Cameroon disability study

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EVIDENCE IN DISABILITY (ICED)
December 2014

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This report presents the findings of a study that developed and tested a best-practice population-based survey methodology to estimate the prevalence of disability in children and adults in Cameroon, and compared the extent to which people with and without disabilities access key mainstream services and opportunities including health, education and livelihoods in north west Cameroon

The north west Cameroon disability study : summary report

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EVIDENCE IN DISABILITY (ICED)
December 2014

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This report presents a summary of the findings of a study that developed and tested a best-practice population-based survey methodology to estimate the prevalence of disability in children and adults in Cameroon, and compared the extent to which people with and without disabilities access key mainstream services and opportunities including health, education and livelihoods in north west Cameroon

Building the evidence base in disability : research summary

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR EVIDENCE IN DISABILITY (ICED)
December 2014

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This research summary of presents the aims, methods and key findings from two disability studies in Cameroon and India. The studies developed a comprehensive population-based survey methodology that is compatible with the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), and explored the inter-relationship between the components of this framework

The IMF, the global crisis and human resources for health : still constraining policy space

LEFRANÇOIS, Fabien
February 2010

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This report "...examines evidence from nine IMF country programmes, chosen based on their HIV prevalence rates, and finds that although the IMF has changed its tune and is talking about greater flexibility, these changes are not enough and are only temporary. "In 2006, the World Health Organisation (WHO) estimated that 57 countries were facing a severe health workforce crisis.... Addressing this shortage, and action alongside it to strengthen health systems around the world, requires substantial, concerted effort from both aid donors and recipient governments. The current global downturn threatens to undermine steps taken in this direction so far and jeopardise progress towards the health-related Millennium Development Goals. "...the IMF has adapted its rhetoric so that it now claims its programmes are more flexible on fiscal and monetary policies, which determine to what extent governments can maintain or increase spending - including of foreign aid - and stimulate economic activity"

Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

TOUKO, Adonis
et al
February 2010

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This article describes a study to investigate the prevalence of HIV in people who are hearing impaired among the population of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, and assess their sexual vulnerability, through interviews and, in most cases, HIV testing. The research concludes that hearing impairment is a significant risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and that more research is needed into the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities, particularly those who are hearing impaired, in order to tackle this vulnerability

HIV & AIDS "train the trainers" manual

AFRICA UNION OF THE BLIND (AFUB)
2010

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"This manual is for use by Trainers of Trainers. i.e. trainers of visually impaired Peer Educators. It has been developed to provide awareness and training on HIV&AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support and to equip blind and partially sighted participants with Peer Educations skills. It is hoped that blind and partially sighted participants will become effective Peer Educators in training other visually impaired persons in their communities"
The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

Breaking the silence : violence against children with disabilities in Africa

AFRICAN CHILD POLICY FORUM (ACPD)
2010

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This report highlights violence against children with disabilities in five study African countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Senegal, Uganda and Zambia. The report notes that there is widespread apathy and negligence at state, local and community levels, and highlights a lack of financial and medical aid, inadequate and inaccessible state facilities and systems, and insufficient community understanding. The study report documents the negative effect this has on children with disabilities and makes a number of recommendations to help improve the situation

Monitoring child disability in developing countries : results from the multiple indicator cluster surveys

UNITED NATIONS CHILDRENS FUND (UNICEF)
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
2008

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Using the ten question screen for children with disability in the multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) in 20 countries, this report aims "to raise awareness and thereby both prevent new cases of child disability when that is possible and ensure protection and inclusion for children with disabilities. The findings presented in this publication provide decision-makers with basic information from a number of diverse countries that can be used to determine priorities related to child disability, including the prevention of childhood disabilities, the early detection of disorders leading to disability, and the timely provision of medical-rehabilitation services and comprehensive support to families with children with disabilities"

HIV & AIDS awareness and training projects for blind and partially sighted persons in Africa : end of project report

NDUTA, Sally
December 2007

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This is the final report of the HIV & AIDS awareness and training projects for blind and partially sighted persons in Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania. Including a summary of the workshops and trainings conducted across these countries, the aim is to highlight achievements, share research and put forth a set of recommendations about mainstreaming disability issues into HIV & AIDS programmes

Missing the target #5 : improving AIDS drug access and advancing health care for all

INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT PREPAREDNESS COALITION (ITPC)
December 2007

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This report documents how the mobilisation around AIDS is driving health systems advancement in China, Dominican Republic, Zimbabwe, Russia, Kenya, India, Cameroon, Zambia and Cambodia, and it highlights the need for improvements in broader systems of care and services to meet the needs of people living with HIV & AIDS and the communities in which they live. It also considers ARV procurement, registration and stock-outs in Argentina, Belize, Cambodia, China, Dominican Republic, India, Malawi, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Russia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Missing the target #4 : time is running out to end AIDS - treatment and prevention for all!

INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT PREPAREDNESS COALITION (ITPC)
July 2007

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This report provides research from 17 countries to support the case that efforts to ensure universal access to treatment for HIV and AIDS are maintained and accelerated; that supplementary services are also provided free at the point of access; that there is increased investment in health care workers; and co-ordinated policy reforms. It also recommends that donors ensure sustainable funding for treatment programmes and identifies areas of weaknesses in global programmes. In addition, it provides focus reports for Cambodia, China, Malawi, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Zambia; brief updates on countries previously reported on: Dominican Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, India, Russia and South Africa; and short summaries on Argentina, Belize, Cameroon, Malaysia and Morocco

Healthy babies, happy mothers : prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Training manual

CAMEROON BAPTIST CONVENTION HEALTH BOARD
May 2006

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This is a comprehensive manual on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. It is designed to help meet the needs of both the mother and the child in all critical stages of maternity and perinatal care. Places a great emphasis on psychological support and counselling, to enable HIV-positive mothers to make informed decisions and healthy choices. Include an overview of key mother-to-child transmission issues. Topics discussed also include: basic principles of HIV counseling; voluntary counseling and testing; confidentiality; instructions for nevirapine treatment of HIV-infected mothers and for HIV-infected mothers during antenatal, labor, delivery, and postnatal periods; counseling and support for safer infant feeding; follow-up and care of an infant born to an HIV-positive mother; follow-up and care of an HIV-positive mother; PMTCT support groups; laboratory HIV testing; universal precautions; PMTCT programme supervision and monitoring; reporting and management information system (MIS). This training manual is intended as a tool for health care workers who desire to know more about HIV and to help train counsellors who work in PMTCT centers

Building bridges with SIPAA : lessons from an African response to HIV and AIDS

DUNN, Alison
HEALTHLINK WORLDWIDE
2005

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This document examines the key lessons from the Support to the International Partnership against AIDS in Africa (SIPAA) programme implemented between 2001 and 2005 in nine African countries. The programme's main focus was on African leadership and ownership, involvement and participation of people living with or affected by HIV and AIDS and mobilisation of national and regional partners. Lessons learned include: meaningful involvement of people living with HIV and AIDS; supporting associations according to potential rather than proven track record; networks support; support for local leaders; making connections through National AIDS Councils; building strong partnerships; sharing information and knowledge across Africa; making the most of African skills and resources

Mapping malaria risk in Africa

MAPPING MALARIA RISK IN AFRICA / ATLAS DU RISKE DE LA MALARIA EN AFRIQUE (MARA/ARMA)
December 2004

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This site presents maps of malaria risk and endemicity (the presence of malaria) in Africa, drawing on published and unpublished data, and through spatial modelling of malaria distribution, seasonality and endemicity. Many factors, especially endemicity, affect the choice of control methods. In the absence of such data it is impossible to rationalize the allocation of limited resources for malaria control. This site presents an opportunity to rethink endemicity and how we may map malaria risk in order to better support planning and programming of malaria control

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