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“We can also change” Piloting participatory research with persons with disabilities and older people in Bangladesh

BURNS, Danny
OSWALD, Katy
November 2014

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Sightsavers, HelpAge International, ADD International and Alzheimer’s Disease International worked together with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised into post-2015 policy making. The aim of the research was to understand better the experiences of social, political and economic exclusion of persons with disabilities and older people in Bangladesh from their own perspectives. Two groups (community and NGO) of peer researchers collected 70 stories from poor and/or excluded persons with disabilities and older people from each of the two sites: Bhashantek, an urban slum in Dhaka; and Cox’s Bazar, a rural area in southeast Bangladesh. From the stories collected and analysed in workshops, the peer researchers identified 13 priority areas that affect persons with disabilities and older people: accidents and disasters; livelihoods; access to education; medical treatment; family support; exclusion and mistreatment; superstition; access to services; mobility; marriage; land; rape and sexual abuse; the role of grassroots community-based organisations. Recommendations from the researchers are made in each area. The peer research programme was evaluated and guidelines for its use are provided.

Universal health coverage for inclusive and sustainable development. A synthesis of 11 country case studies.

MAEDA, Akiko
ARAUJO, Edson
CASHIN, Cheryl
HARRIS, Joseph
IKEGAMI, Naoki
REICH, Michael R.
et al
2014

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Universal health coverage (UHC) for inclusive and sustainable development synthesises the experiences from 11 countries—Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam—in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The UHC policies for each country are examined around three common themes: (1) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (2) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (3) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The path to UHC is specific to each country, but countries can benefit from experiences of others and avoid potential risks

Inclusion works : lessons learned on the inclusion of people with disabilities in a food security project for ultra poor women in Bangladesh

BRUIJN, Paulien
May 2014

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People with disabilities are often amongst the poorest in the developing world, and yet they are usually left out of development projects. Inclusion of persons with disabilities in mainstream development programmes is a relatively new concept in development. The ICCO Gaibandha Food Security Project in Bangladesh is one of the first programmes that has mainstreamed disability on a large scale. This book represents the lessons that are learned about mainstreaming disability in this programme. It is a source of inspiration and offers practical suggestions to make a start with including people with disabilities in (food security) projects

Disability inclusion : translating policy into practice in humanitarian action

PEARCE, Emma
March 2014

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This report “documents positive practices and ongoing challenges to promote disability inclusion across UNHCR’s and its partners’ work in multiple countries and multiple displacement contexts. The report provides lessons and recommendations for other organizations and the wider humanitarian community on engaging persons with disabilities at all levels of humanitarian work. It draws on consultations with over 700 displaced persons, including persons with disabilities, their families, and humanitarian staff, in eight countries”

Note: This report is also offered in plain text format

Mapping report of physical rehabilitation services in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Odisha (India) and Sri Lanka

AXELSSON, Charlotte
2014

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This report presents a mapping (situational analysis) of the physical rehabilitation sector in the three countries and the Odisha state in India completed as part of Handicap International’s three year regional program in South Asia “Towards Disability Inclusive Development through a Strengthened Rehabilitation Sector in South Asia”. The aim of this mapping is improve the availability of information on the physical rehabilitation sector and to have an overview of the needs and unmet needs for physical rehabilitation

Fact sheet : refugees with disabilities

WOMEN’S REFUGEE COMMISSION
2014

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This factsheet highlights the issue of disabilities among refugees and conflict-affected population. It emphasizes actions undertaken by the Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC) and highlights their next steps in disability inclusion

Note: Also available in easy read format

Inclusive disaster risk management : a framework and toolkit

FERRETTI, Silva
KHAMIS, Marion
2014

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This framework and toolkit have been designed to support practitioners in challenging and deepening inclusiveness in their work. They have been designed in simple language, so the resource should be easy to adapt for the use of field staff as a complement to existing manuals and operational resources on DRM. The practical framework contains the following sections:introduction, framework for inclusive DRM, levels of achievements, and assessing inclusiveness, using the framework for,  annexes and Q&A. Throughout the resource, related resources and checklists are provided and the toolbox features cartoons, tools catalogue, learning pills, case studies, poster and 4D lenses. These resources are useful for practitioners who want to develop an understanding of inclusive DRM framework and to learn how to practically assess inclusiveness in in ongoing DRM situations

Empowerment and participation : good practices from South & South-East Asia in disability inclusive disaster risk management

BOLTE, Patrick
MARR, Samadhi
SITOMPU, Dewi
et al
2014

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This report presents good practices showing examples of inclusion and active participation of persons with disabilities in disaster risk management. The paper is structured in three sections that illustrate general recommendations towards greater participation of persons with disabilities.

Section A provides the background on disability inclusive disaster risk management and reviews existing guidelines as to how the participation of people with disabilities in disaster risk management can be facilitated. 

Section B contains the actual good practices, structured in three separate chapters that illustrate general recommendations towards greater participation of persons with disabilities. Each practice highlights the involvement of individual persons as well as groups, describes the initial setting, the achievements, and the lessons learned from the practice. Each practice concludes with a box with key insights.

The final section C presents the key recommendations that can be drawn from the good practices and that are geared to inform future programming

The Rapid Assessment of Disability – Informing the Development of an Instrument to Measure the Effectiveness of Disability Inclusive Development Through a Qualitative Study in Bangladesh

HUQ, N L
EDMONDS, T J
BAKER, S
BUSJIA, L
DEVINE, A
FOTIS, K
MARELLA, M
GOUJON, N
KEEFFE, J
2013

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Purpose: The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) questionnaire was developed to provide governments and development agencies with an appropriate instrument to determine the prevalence of people with disability within theirtarget populations, and to design and evaluate the effectiveness of disability inclusive activities in addressing their priorities and needs.

 

Method: The RAD questionnaire was developed using two conceptual frameworks: the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Existing instruments were reviewed to inform the structure and content of the RAD questionnaire. The RAD questionnaire that was developed for field testing in Bangladesh comprised both a household questionnaire and a questionnaire for individuals within each household, with 5 sections: 1) Demographic information, 2) Assessment of functioning, 3) Awareness of rights of people with disability, 4) Well-being and quality of life, 5) Participation in the community. Prior to field-testing the RAD questionnaire in Bangladesh, a qualitative study was conducted to ensure the relevance of the questionnaire in the context of a developing country. In-depth interviews with 9 people with disability and a focus group of 8 parents of children with disability were conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. 

 

Results:Qualitative findings highlighted factors relevant to the lives of people with disability in Bangladesh, including discrepancies between the awareness and attainment of rights for people with disability, the wellbeing of people withdisability and their families, as well as numerous barriers to full participation in their community. While the findings confirmed that the design and content of the questionnaire reflected all these aspects, some changes were made to the items in the questionnaire to ensure that it reflected the views of people with disability from the context of a developing country.

 

Conclusion and Implications: This qualitative study was an important step in the development of the RAD questionnaire as it helped to achieve its aim - namely, to establish the prevalence of disability and to assist in the design and evaluation of disability inclusive interventions in the setting of a developing country.

Lessons learned on inclusion of people with disability in the ICCO Gaibandha food security project for ultra poor women, 2009-2013

BRUIJN, Paulien
October 2013

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The Gaibandha Food Security Program is one of the first programs that mainstreams disability on a large scale, and the Food Security Project in Gaibandha was implemented in order to improve the food security situation of 40.000 women headed households. In April 2013 an internal evaluation took place on the disability mainstreaming process within the FSUP Gaibandha project. This report reflects related lessons learned about disability mainstreaming

Mainstreaming disability and ageing in water, sanitation and hygiene sector

JONES, Hazel
September 2013

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This report presents the findings of a desk study that provided an overview of the current state of disability and ageing issues in WASH, from the perspective of the WASH sector. Both disabled and older people were looked at together, because many frail older people, although they may reject the label ‘disabled’, experience impairments that limit their daily activities, which result in them facing similar kinds of barriers to accessing WASH

Inclusive disaster and emergency management for persons with disabilities : a review of needs, challenges, effective policies, and practices

RAJA, Deepti Samant
NARASIMHAN, Nirmita
2013

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This report provides an introduction into the needs of persons with disabilities in disasters and emergencies and reviews the challenges, effective policies and practices of inclusive disaster and emergency management.  It compiles international mandates and guidelines, strategies and practices for inclusive disaster management and gives an overview of the disaster and emergency management process and how persons with disabilities can be affected at each stage.  This report highlights the importance of information and communication technologies throughout the process and provides related case studies

Early Care following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) in a Rehabilitation Centre in Bangladesh - An Analysis

RAZZAK, A T M A
2013

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Purpose: The study aimed to explore the outcome of current practices in the treatment of persons with traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) in Bangladesh, through the stages of rescue and first contact with physician, transportation to the tertiary hospital and intermediate admission.

 

Method: This observational study was conducted between June and August 2011, at the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), in Dhaka, Bangladesh. From the 113 persons with SCI admitted at CRP during this period, 56 persons with TSCI were selected. With the help of a questionnaire, data were collected from these persons or their attendants by trained staff, and also taken from hospital records. Data were processed and analysed by SPSS software version 16.

 

Results: The male-female ratio among the study participants was 5.25: 1, with a mean age of 33.02 years. 55.3% of them were paraplegic, while 44.7% were tetraplegic. About 70% of the injuries were complete according to ASIA impairment scale (AIS) during admission at CRP.

 

The most common causes of injury were falls (50%), followed by road traffic accidents (RTA) and carrying loads on the head. 74.8% of the injured persons had been rescued from the accident site by local people but only 16.1% had been transported by ambulance. The spine board had never been used. More than half of the injured received initial treatment only at a sub-district or district hospital where none of the requisite facilities were available.

 

While being transported from one hospital to the other, 10.7% experienced neurological deterioration of some sort. Significant statistical correlation was found between mode of transfer (P <0.03) and intermediate admission (P<0.001)with neurological deterioration.

 

Conclusions: There is an urgent need to implement pre-hospital trauma care in Bangladesh. Since resources and places for the rehabilitation of persons with TSCI are scarce, regional and national spinal injury centres should be established without delay.

 

Limitations: The study focussed only on a small sample of persons with TSCI undergoing treatment at a single centre.

Disaster risk management for all : for the inclusion of children, elderly people and people with disabilities

FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (BMZ)
World Food Programme
GIZ sector programmes
Eds
May 2013

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This publication explains the links between disasters, disaster risk management and particularly vulnerable sections of the population including children, elderly people and people with disabilities.  It gives an overview of the experience to date and provides some practical suggestions on how to meet the needs of all people on an equitable basis through disaster risk management.  Specific activities to strengthen inclusive disaster risk management are provided in this guide for all vulnerable groups

BMZ Information Brochure 1, 2013e

Inclusive Education in Bangladesh: Are Pre-service Teachers Ready to Accept Students with Special Educational Needs in Regular Classes?

MALAK, M S
2013

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Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine pre-service special education (PSpE) teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education (IE) for students with special educational needs (SEN) in Bangladesh.

 

Method: 100 PSpE teachers from a leading teacher education institute in Bangladesh were purposively sampled. A 20-item based survey questionnaire was used to measure participants’ attitudes. Items of the survey were developed from a literature review in which Attitudes Towards Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) by Wilczenski (1992), Concern about Inclusive Education Scale (CIES) by Sharma and Desai (2002), and Interaction with Persons with a Disability (IPD) Scaled by Gething (1994) were considered as the key specialist resources. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilised in the analysis.

 

Results: The results revealed that while the PSpE teachers hold favourable attitudes towards students with SEN, they are concerned about some basic issues of inclusion. Practicum and close contact with children with SEN were found to be important variables which shaped the attitudes of the PSpE teachers. Implications of the findings are discussed and further suggestions are made as to how teacher education institutes may engage PSpE teachers more effectively with their programmes to promote better inclusive practices.

 

Conclusion: The study suggests that there is a need for providing PSpE teachers with experiential learning prior to school practicum.

The key informant child disability project in Bangladesh and Pakistan

MACTAGGART, Islay
MURTHY, GVS
2013

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The Key Informant Method (KIM) has previously been tested by CBM, LSHTM and others, and found to be a valid method for the identification of children with severe visual impairment and blindness in Bangladesh, using community volunteers in the place of a door-to-door survey. This report outlines a study that set out to expand this and test whether voluntary, community-level Key Informants (KIs) could be trained to effectively identify children with moderate or severe physical impairments, sensory impairments (visual and hearing) or epilepsy in Bangadesh and Pakistan, and if so whether this process could be used to assess prevalence and plan appropriate referral services for children meeting these criteria

Disability and disaster risk reduction : celebrating DRR day

CARE INTERNATIONAL
January 2013

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This resource is a special edition of CARE International's disaster risk reduction community of practice quarterly newsletter to celebrate global disaster risk reduction day.  It focuses on disability inclusion in disaster risk reduction programming and presents different organisations' experiences of inclusive disaster risk reduction in different regions

CI DRR CoP Newsletter, quarterly

Equal right, equal opportunity – Inclusive education for children with disabilities

WALKER, Jo
2013

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This report synthesises current evidence on the policy responses which can help bring down the common barriers faced by disabled children in gaining a quality education, across seven inter-dependent strategies – from the family, local communities and national government, through to the international community. 

 

The strategies are: create appropriate legislative frameworks, and set out ambitious national plans for inclusion; provide the capacity, resources and leadership to implement ambitious national plans on inclusion; improve data on disability and education, and build accountability for action; make schools and classrooms accessible and relevant for all; ensure there are enough appropriately trained teachers for all; challenge attitudes which reinforce and sustain discrimination; create an enabling environment to support inclusive education, including through cross-sectoral policies and strategies that reduce exclusion.

 

Actions to be taken by national governments to achieve these strategies are presented.

 

Case studies in India, Italy, Ethopia, Bolivia, Bangladesh, Mozambique, Gambia, Burkino Faso and Palestine are provided.

 

 

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