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The impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities: a rapid review. Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Query No: 35

MEANIE-DAVIS, Jessie
LEE, Harri
CORBY, Nick
April 2020

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There is currently very limited data and evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities and pre-existing health conditions, with no disability-disaggregated data on mortality rates available in the public sphere. However, reports from the media, disability advocates and disabled peoples’ organisations (DPOs) point to several emerging impacts, including primary and secondary impacts including on health, education, food security and livelihoods.  Most of the available data is from high income countries (HICs) though reports from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are likely to emerge. Evidence was gathered by a rapid desk based review. Gaps are identified. 

 

The section concerned with lessons drawn from similar epidemics draws heavily on lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and touches on lessons from the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016 and the SARS pandemic in the early 2000s.10 It also touches briefly on SARS, MERS and H1N1 (swine flu). 

 

Primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities are reviewed.


People with disabilities are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 not only because it can exacerbate underlying medical conditions, but because of attitudinal, environmental and institutional barriers to their participation in and benefit from the pandemic response. For example, inaccessible public health messaging and healthcare facilities, and stigma and discrimination.

Sightsavers' approach to making health services inclusive for everyone

Sightsavers
April 2019

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Sightsavers has produced a new film that sets out our work to make health care services accessible and inclusive for everyone. It focuses on our programmes in Bhopal, India and Nampula, Mozambique. This highlights how we work and share learnings globally, but also shows how programmes can be made locally relevant by working with partners with direct experience.

The film showcases some of the people who work hard to make our inclusive health programmes a success, from Sightsavers experts and government health workers to leaders of disabled people’s organisations.

To find out more our inclusive health work and how we are developing best practice in terms of inclusive health programmes, visit our website: https://www.sightsavers.org/disability/health/

Implications of not addressing mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) needs in conflict situations. K4D Helpdesk Report 582

OMERT, Anna
April 2019

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This review examines the potential implications of not addressing mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) needs resulting from conflict throughout the life course, including on longer term mental and physical health, communities and families (including intergenerational effects), and overall human development (including education and participation in the workforce). 

HIV prevention, treatment and care programming for people with disabilities (Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report No. 7)

BELL, Emma
CORBY, Nick
February 2019

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This document provides a rapid review of the evidence on disability inclusive approaches to HIV prevention and response. The purpose of this review is to inform DFID’s policy and programming around integrated approaches to HIV, care and treatment. After briefly outlining the methodology in section 2, section 3 provides an overview of the evidence base on disability and HIV programming, and section 4 provides an overview of key barriers to accessing HIV-related services for people with disabilities. Finally, section 5 provides a series of case studies highlighting lessons learned including key enabling factors. This review finds that overall the evidence base on disability inclusive HIV programming is limited, with the majority of evidence from disability-specific interventions targeted at specific groups of people with different impairments

Toolkit for safe listening devices and systems

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION (ITU)
2019

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This toolkit provides practical guidance to support Member States, industry partners and civil society groups in the use and implementation of the WHO-ITU H.870 Global standard on safe listening devices and systems. The WHO-ITU Global standard is the result of a collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and has been developed in response to the growing prevalence of hearing loss and the threat to hearing posed by unsafe listening. The WHO-ITU Global standard has been developed using an evidence-based and consultative process, with the participation of experts in the field of sound, audiology, acoustics, communication, and smartphone technology

Paediatric blast injury field manual

THE PAEDIATRIC BLAST INJURY PARTNERSHIP
2019

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The Field Manual has been created to provide technical guidance for those with medical training.  It enables the user to adapt their knowledge to the treatment of severely injured children.  It has paediatric-specific sections on:

  • Pre-hospital care and transport
  • Damage control resuscitation, surgery and intensive care
  • Surgery (thoraco-abdominal, limb, burns)
  • Neurological injury
  • Ward care
  • Rehabilitation
  • Psychosocial support
  • Ethics and safeguarding

The Manual is also intended for use by anyone who is required to plan for the treatment of severely injured children, so they can see the resources, training and equipment that is required in a medical facility likely to receive blast injured children.

World report on vision

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

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This report makes the case that integrated people-centred eye care is the care model of choice and can help meet the challenges faced. Chapter 1 highlights the critical importance of vision; describes eye conditions that can cause vision impairment and those that typically do not; reviews the main risk factors for eye conditions; defines vision impairment and disability; and explores the impact of vision impairment. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the global magnitude of eye conditions and vision impairment and their distribution. Chapter 3 presents effective promotive preventive, treatment, and rehabilitative strategies to address eye care needs across the life course. Chapter 4 starts by taking stock of global advocacy efforts to date, the progress made in addressing specific eye conditions and vision impairment, and recent scientific and technological advances; it then identifies the remaining challenges facing the field. Chapter 5 describes how making eye care an integral part of universal health care (including developing a package of eye care interventions) can help address some of the challenges faced by countries. Chapter 6 presents IPEC and explains the need for engaging and empowering people and communities, reorienting the model of care based on a strong primary care and the need for coordinating services within and across sectors; and creating an enabling environment. The report ends with five recommendations for action that can be implemented by all countries to improve eye care. 

Uniting to combat neglected tropical diseases 2018 Action Framework Report

UNITING TO COMBAT NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES
2019

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From 2013 to 2017, the Uniting to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases (“Uniting”) partnership has produced an annual scorecard and report to celebrate progress and highlight the principal challenges. The Uniting partnership reviewed the scorecard approach in 2017. The initial scoring process was associated with several challenges in terms of inconsistent indicators across diseases and the number of subjective judgements required to arrive at a final score. The scorecard review resulted in a transition from a scoring approach to a collaborative assessment of progress, gaps and priorities, and identification of areas for collective action. Two new tools replaced the scorecard: the Action Framework and the Impact Dashboard. The Action Framework is a standardized gap analysis tool. It uses qualitative input from stakeholders across the NTD community and fosters dialogue and collective action among a broad set of stakeholders. The Impact Dashboards display quantitative data sourced from WHO and pharmaceutical companies, with standardized indicators across the PC and IDM diseases, to provide a high-level view of impact and gaps at the global level. 

Changes in social participation of persons affected by leprosy, before and after multidrug therapy, in an endemic state in Eastern India

RAMASAMAY, Senthilkumar
2019

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Multidrug therapy (MDT) completion rate and the change in disability levels before and after medical treatment are reported as outcomes in leprosy programmes. Changes in activity and social participation levels are rarely reported, possibly because the parameters are more difficult to measure. The study aimed to assess and evaluate the changes in social participation among leprosy-affected persons after completion of MDT. An observational study was conducted among 108 newly-diagnosed leprosy-affected clients, who were registered at the Leprosy Referral Hospital in Champa, Chhattisgarh. Their disability levels pre- and post- MDT were assessed using the WHO Disability Grading, and their social participation level was assessed using the Participation Scale

 

https://doi.org/10.5463/dcid.v30i2.791

HIV & disability in West Africa: A combined analysis of 4 studies conducted in Burkina Faso, Niger, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde (2019) - VIH & Handicap en Afrique de l’Ouest : Une analyse combinée de 4 études conduites au Burkina Faso, Niger, Guinée Bis

DE BEAUDRAP, Pierre
2019

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This paper includes four studies which seek to better understand the situation by HIV-related situation of disabled men and women living in West Africa. 
Using epidemiological investigation, qualitative interviews and collections of testimonies, these studies offer insight into the vulnerability of people with disabilities in the area of ​​sexual health
 

Epilepsy: a public health imperative

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

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This report is the first global report on epilepsy summarising the available evidence on the burden of epilepsy and the public health response required at global, regional and national levels.

This report is a call for sustained and coordinated action to ensure that every person with epilepsy has access to the care and treatment they need, and the opportunity to live free from stigma and discrimination in all parts of the world. It is time to highlight epilepsy as a public health imperative, to strongly encourage investment in reducing its burden, and to advocate for actions to address gaps in epilepsy knowledge, care and research.

Inclusive service delivery for persons with disabilities in Mongolia

MAMUTKULOV, Raushenbek
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (ADB)
2018

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The Ensuring Inclusiveness and Service Delivery for Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) project in Mongolia aims to ensure access to improved services, employment opportunities, and more support through social welfare reform for PWDs.

Estimates of disability prevalence in Mongolia tend to be underreported, especially among older people, girls, and women, thus leaving a substantial number of persons with disabilities (PWDs) without the necessary services and protection. Early identification of disability is inadequate and current disability assessments follow an outdated, narrow medical approach. Many people perceive PWDs to be incapable of living independently and a burden to society.

A brief overview is given of a project aiming to ensure access to services and employment for PWDs to increase their autonomy and contribution to the economy and society in general.

(ADB Brief, Social Protection Brief, No.91)

Disability inclusion in disaster risk management - Promising practices and opportunities for enhanced engagements

GUERNSEY, Katherine
SCHERRER, Valerie
April 2018

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Disaster risk management aims to address vulnerability in order to reduce risk and therefore needs to consider the full range of vulnerability drivers, including those that affect persons with disabilities. This report presents the results of comprehensive review of the state of practice in disability-inclusive Disaster risk management (DRM) undertaken by GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). The report is intended to help World Bank staff incorporate persons with disabilities and a disability perspective into their ongoing DRM work. The report will also be of interest to other development actors and stakeholders working on DRM.

Deafness and hearing loss

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2018

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A short factsheet about deafness and hearing loss covering key facts, causes (congenital and acquired), impact (functional, social and economic), prevention, identification and management and WHO response. 

Where there is no psychiatrist A mental health care manual

PATEL, Vikram
HANLON, Charlotte
March 2018

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This is a practical manual about mental health care, aimed at community health workers, primary care nurses, social workers and primary care doctors, particularly in low resource settings. It describes more than 30 clinical problems associated with mental illness, using a problem-solving approach to guide the reader through their assessment and management. It addresses the lack of understanding of mental health among many health workers. Mental health issues as they arise in specific contexts are described - in refugee camps, in school health programmes, as well as in mental health promotion. The final section helps the reader to personalise for a particular location, for example, by entering local information on voluntary agencies, the names and costs of medicines and words in the local language for symptoms.

 

This product is an update of the first edition 2003. It is also available as Open Access.

Addressing the rising prevalence of hearing loss

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
February 2018

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Hearing loss is the fourth highest cause of disability globally, with an estimated annual cost of over 750 billion dollars. These facts are well known and have contributed to growing global consciousness on the need for accessible hearing care in all regions of the world. Looking forward however, the demand for hearing care is likely to grow significantly in coming decades. This report highlights the potential escalation of hearing loss to the middle of the century, and focusses on the factors responsible for hearing loss and the means to address them. 

WHO estimates in 2008 found that 360 million people worldwide live with disabling hearing loss, including 32 million children and 180 million older adults. The most recent estimations place this figure at over 466 million people with disabling hearing loss in 2018. The main areas of the world affected by disabling hearing loss are the South Asian, Asia Pacific and Sub-Saharan African regions, with a prevalence rate almost four times that of the high income regions.

 

Measures to address these concerns deal with: prevention of infections in mothers and babies; chronic ear infections; noise exposure; and ototoxic hearing loss.

 

Public health aspects are highlighted. 

Standard school eye health guidelines for low and middle-income countries

GILBERT, Clare
MINTO, Hasan
MORJARIA, Priya
KHAN, Imran
February 2018

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The purpose of these best practice guidelines is to provide direction to those planning and implementing eye health initiatives for schools, including policy makers, health care and educational authorities, health planners, eye care delivery organizations and professionals, in partnership with teachers, parents and children. In situations where resources for eye health are limited, decisions need to be made to ensure that programs not only address public health problems but are also implemented in a way that is effective, efficient and, wherever possible, sustainable. Systems for monitoring and plans for evaluation should also be developed at the outset. These practice guidelines provide an excellent learning resource for a module on school eye health that can be incorporated in optometry and ophthalmology residency curricula.  A section highlights some of the challenges in current school eye health initiatives and provides a framework in which school eye health is integrated into school health programs. Case studies are provided to emphasise the integrated approach and a 15-step approach, from situation analysis to monitoring and evaluation, is suggested. Practical recommendations for implementation are provided, including information on the equipment and technology required

 

This evidence-based document is based on best practice guidelines initially developed through a joint collaboration between Sightsavers International, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Brien Holden Vision Institute

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