This Guidebook supports the implementation of the Washington Group Short Set (WG-SS) – a set of questions designed to identify (in a census or survey format) people with a disability – in multi-topic household surveys, towards improving the collection of disaggregated disability data. The first section presents an overview of the disability definitions in the sociopsychological literature, exploring how disability is defined and who is considered disabled. The second section looks at three different methods for capturing disability in multi-topic household surveys: the Washington Group (WG) question sets, the World Health Organization (WHO) survey instruments for disabilities, and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) module on disabilities. The third section presents the six core WG-SS functional domains, ‘seeing’, ‘hearing’, ‘walking’, ‘cognition’, ‘selfcare’, and ‘communication’, that are intended for the general population five years of age and above. Finally, the Guidebook offers a series of recommendations for ensuring the improvement of disability data collection in multi-topic household survey.
Mental health issues impose an enormous disease burden on societies across the world. Depression alone affects 350 million people globally and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite its enormous social burden, mental disorders continue to be driven into the shadows by stigma, prejudice and fear. The issue is becoming ever more urgent in light of the forced migration and sustained conflict we are seeing in many countries of the world.
This report was written by Seth Mnookin (MIT). It is the product of almost two years of activities of a Working Group chaired and directed by Arthur Kleinman (Harvard University Asia Center). It was first presented during the keynote panel of a World Bank Group/ World Health Organization high-level meeting on making mental health a global development priority. The two-day event was held on April 13 and 14, 2016, as part of the World Bank Group/International Monetary Fund spring meetings in Washington, D.C.
This report measures health service coverage and financial protection to assess countries’ progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). The report follows the launch of a monitoring framework for UHC, based on broad consultation of experts from around the world. The framework focuses on indicators and targets for service coverage – including promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and palliation – and financial protection for all. Global access to essential health services including family planning, antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, child immunisation, antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis treatment, and access to clean water and sanitation was assessed in 2013, and it was found that at least 400 million people lacked access to at least one of these services. The report also found that, across 37 countries, 6% of the population was tipped or pushed further into extreme poverty ($1.25/day) because they had to pay for health services out of their own pockets.
UNESCO together with UNICEF, the World Bank, UNFPA, UNDP, UN Women and UNHCR organized the World Education Forum 2015 in Incheon, Republic of Korea, from 19 – 22 May 2015, hosted by the Republic of Korea. Over 1,600 participants from 160 countries, including over 120 Ministers, heads and members of delegations, heads of agencies and officials of multilateral and bilateral organizations, and representatives of civil society, the teaching profession, youth and the private sector, adopted the Incheon Declaration for Education 2030, which sets out a new vision for education for the next fifteen years.
Towards 2030: a new vision for education
Our vision is to transform lives through education, recognizing the important role of education as a main driver of development and in achieving the other proposed SDGs. We commit with a sense of urgency to a single, renewed education agenda that is holistic, ambitious and aspirational, leaving no one behind. This new vision is fully captured by the proposed SDG 4 “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” and its corresponding targets. It is transformative and universal, attends to the ‘unfinished business’ of the EFA agenda and the education-related MDGs, and addresses global and national education challenges. It is inspired by a humanistic vision of education and development based on human rights and dignity; social justice; inclusion; protection; cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity; and shared responsibility and accountability. We reaffirm that education is a public good, a fundamental human right and a basis for guaranteeing the realization of other rights. It is essential for peace, tolerance, human fulfilment and sustainable development. We recognize education as key to achieving full employment and poverty eradication. We will focus our efforts on access, equity and inclusion, quality and learning outcomes, within a lifelong learning approach.
Action and commitments required to implement the agenda are presented.
Universal health coverage (UHC) for inclusive and sustainable development synthesises the experiences from 11 countries—Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam—in implementing policies and strategies to achieve and sustain UHC. These countries represent diverse geographic and economic conditions, but all have committed to UHC as a key national aspiration and are approaching it in different ways. The UHC policies for each country are examined around three common themes: (1) the political economy and policy process for adopting, achieving, and sustaining UHC; (2) health financing policies to enhance health coverage; and (3) human resources for health policies for achieving UHC. The path to UHC is specific to each country, but countries can benefit from experiences of others and avoid potential risks
This report presents the World Bank’s experience in climate and disaster resilient development, and contends that such development is essential to eliminating extreme poverty and achieving shared prosperity by 2030. Case studies are used throughout this report to illustrate promising approaches, lessons learned and remaining challenges. Vulnerable populations are discussed within the report
This report "takes the centrality of jobs in the development process as its starting point and challenges and re-frames how we think about work. Adopting a cross-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approach, the Report looks at why some jobs do more for development than others. The Report finds that the jobs with the greatest development payoffs are those that make cities function better, connect the economy to global markets, protect the environment, foster trust and civic engagement, or reduce poverty. Critically, these jobs are not only found in the formal sector; depending on the country context, informal jobs can also be transformational"...The Report advances a three-stage approach to help governments meet these objectives. First, policy fundamentals "including macroeconomic stability, an enabling business environment, investments in human capital, and the rule of law" are essential for both growth and job creation. Second, well-designed labour policies can help ensure that growth translates into employment opportunities, but they need to be complemented by a broader approach to job creation that looks beyond the labor market. Third, governments should strategically identify which jobs would do the most for development given their specific country context, and remove or offset the obstacles that prevent the private sector from creating more of those jobs
Note: Links are provided to full document and separate files containing the messages, overview, each chapter and statistical annex
Article 26, Habilitation and Rehabilitation, of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) calls for: “… appropriate measures, including through peer support, to enable persons with disabilities to attain and maintain their maximum independence, full physical, mental, social and vocational ability, and full inclusion and participation in all aspects of life”. The Article further calls on countries to organize, strengthen, and extend comprehensive rehabilitation services and programmes, which should begin as early as possible, based on multidisciplinary assessment of individual needs and strengths, and including the provision of assistive devices and technologies. This chapter examines some typical rehabilitation measures, the need and unmet need for rehabilitation, barriers to accessing rehabilitation, and ways in which these barriers can be addressed.
This paper reports on the implementation and the results of a earthquake disability project in Pakistan that aimed to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities and their families in areas affected by the October 8, 2005 earthquake, by ensuring better mobility, improved physical and mental health, increased participation in social and economic life and strengthened empowerment. This study was designed to assess the key factors affecting the implementation and outcomes of this project, the outcomes, the risk to development outcome as well as the bank and borrower performance
Report No ICR00001584
This paper reviews the policies and practices of major multilateral and bilateral agencies that include disability in development. The paper provides examples of their programs and highlights five emerging trends of disability in international cooperation and development. This paper is useful for people interested in disability and international cooperation and development
Social Protection Discussion Paper No 1003
"Aid to developing countries has largely neglected the population-wide health services that are core to communicable disease control in the developed world. These mostly non-clinical services generate 'pure public goods' by reducing everyone’s exposure to disease through measures such as implementing health and sanitary regulations. They complement the clinical preventive and treatment services which are the donors’ main focus...Donors need greater clarity about what constitutes a strong public health system, and how to build them. The paper discusses gaps in donors’ approaches and first steps toward closing them"
This report summarises responses gathered, in late March 2009, from respondents in 71 countries. It asked whether antiretroviral treatment had been affected, or might be affected in future, by the global economic crisis. It identifies regions that appear to be more vulnerable than others and highlights the causes and negative effects of disruption to antiretroviral treatment programmes or services. The report suggests ways to maintain and expand access to HIV treatment in a difficult economic climate
“The Capacity Development Results Framework (CDRF or the Framework) is a powerful new approach to the design, implementation, monitoring, management, and evaluation of development programs... [It] can be profitably applied to assess the feasibility and coherence of proposed development projects, to monitor projects during implementation (with a view to taking corrective action), or to assess the results, or even the design, of completed projects. The framework can also be used as a step-by-step guide to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects and programs designed to build capacity for development at a national or sub-national level”
This report proposes universal design (UD), a US term for inclusive design, to be adopted by the World Bank in its infrastructure projects. The benefits and applications of UD are presented, including in water and sanitation, and reasons for its adoption are provided. Case studies illustrate UD applied to developing country contexts. This report is useful for people interested in universal design in developing countries
"This discussion paper reviews the World Bank poverty assessment literature on the relationship between disability and poverty. The paper found that using standard assumptions about the distribution of household consumption among household members and the typical way that poverty lines are set in World Bank poverty assessments was not as significant as common sense and anecdotal evidence would suggest"
Social Paper Discussion Paper No 0805
Specific to Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, this comprehensive resource aims to examine the poverty-disability relationship in transition countries. It explores the linkages between disability and employment, school enrolments, and the time-use of adults. This report also considers more broadly the nature of service delivery and the socio-economic implications for disabled people
This note summarises the findings, processes, concerns, and lessons learned from a project in Andhra Pradesh - one of six pilot projects aimed at the application of specific social accountability tools in different contexts of service delivery
This paper is a World Bank organisational learning tool designed to provide a review and commentary on the relevance of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The purpose is to assist World Bank staff with supporting implementation activities. The articles that make up this document aim to operationalize World Bank protocols, legal obligations and benchmark specific principles. This practical resource would be useful for those working in the field of disability and development, in particular those working towards legislative reform
This report explores the social and economic factors that impact the lives of disabled people in India. It examines the ways in which public sector interventions can improve the quality of life they experience and it presents the socio-economic profile of people with disabilities, addresses the societal attitudes they live with, and discusses the root causes of disability in India. This work would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability and development
The Social Development department of the World Bank has produced this easy-to-use report as a part of a series of guidance notes on social analysis. It offers practical advice on mainstreaming disability-inclusive development into World Bank projects. The report provides a checklist for developing inclusive disability policies and for including people with disabilities in each aspect of the development project cycle. The report does not aim to promote separate disability projects but rather to ensure that people with disabilities are included in all projects. The report would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in international development policy and practice
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion