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HIV/AIDS stigma : finding solutions to strengthen HIV/AIDS programs

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON WOMEN (ICRW)
2006

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This paper gives an overview of the research findings of ICRW and its partners in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Vietnam and Zambia into stigma and discrimination around HIV & AIDS, which show many common causes and similar outcomes, and looks at ways to combat stigma

HIV & AIDS - stigma and violence reduction intervention manual

DUVVURY, Nata
PRASAD, Nandini
KISHORE, Nanda
2006

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This manual is a guide for community-based organisations to facilitate a community-led and -owned process that addresses stigma and gender-based violence in HIV & AIDS prevention efforts. It is based on findings from the Stigma and Violence Reduction Intervention (SVRI) project, conducted in Andhra Pradesh, India from 2003 to 2005. It is divided into sections: a discussion of three tools that can be used in participatory development projects (participatory learning and action, community-led action research (CLAR) and transformatory workshops); a general guide for implementing community-led action research; a description of the CLAR process among the key populations of the SVRI project and the plans of action that they developed based on this process; the challenges and lessons learned in implementing a community-owned process to address stigma and gender-based violence, and some conclusions. Appendices provide a sample toolkit with a series of workshops designed for the populations who participated in the SVRI project. Although designed specifically for this project, the activities and format could be adapted for use by similar projects working with other populations or in other countries

Common at its core : HIV-related stigma across contexts

OGDEN, Jessica
NYBLADE, Laura
2005

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The report begins by defining stigma and providing background about projects that ICRW and its partners in four countries carried out into HIV-related stigma and discrimination. It then discusses that, in spite of different contexts, the four countries where the studies took place share key features that shape the nature and forms of HIV-related stigma and it presents findings focusing on the similarities across the four different country contexts. It concludes with a discussion of the way forward and an overview of the two anti-stigma toolkits that grew out of the projects’ findings: one that is suitable to many African settings; and one, adapted from the first, which is tailored for Vietnam but suitable for adaptation elsewhere in the Asian region

Disentangling HIV and AIDS stigma in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia

NYBLADE, Laura
et al
2003

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This report explores the causes, manifestations and consequences of HIV and AIDS related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on a study in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia, it acknowledges stigma as complex, caused by incomplete knowledge, fears of death and disease and sexual transmission. Stigma is also influenced by socio-economic status, age and gender. The report also discusses in detail how people living with HIV react to stigma, and also how they and their families/ friends develop strategies to cope with stigma. Recommendations include the need to provide safe spaces to discuss the values and beliefs about sex, morality and death, find a common language to talk about stigma and ensure a contextually appropriate and ethically responsible role for people living with HIV

Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in sub-Saharan Africa : prevalance of behaviour and implications for negotiating safer sexual practices

LUKE, Nancy
KURZ, Kathleen
September 2002

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This paper is a literature and evidence survey of cross-generational and transactional sex in Africa. It examines the age and economic asymmetries in sexual relationships in an African context, prevalence of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, adolescent girls' and men's motivations and adolescent girls' negotiating power in relationships. It comes to the conclusion that adolescent girls have power when negotiating the start and end of relationships and they are strongly motivated to enter into cross-generational relationships for the material benefits and status that they bring. However, once they have entered the relaltionship the balance of power shifts to the man, especially in the context of gift-giving.
The paper also examines the evidence around cultural acceptance of cross-generational and transactional sexual relationships, violence and rape within the relationships, multiple relationships, and outcome of the relationships. The authors' recommendations are to: gather policy support for changing the social norm; mount programmatic responses; conduct research to investigate the success of programmatic responses, document the policy process, and fill other important information gaps

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