Wage employment

Wage employment includes any salaried or paid job under contract (written or not) to another person, organization or enterprise in both the formal and informal economy. People with disabilities often face many barriers to finding decent wage employment; however, access to wage employment should always be considered an option for people with disabilities interested in work. This is supported by article 27 of the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. Through inclusive wage employment programmes, potential barriers can be diminished and people with disabilities have increased opportunities to access to paid work opportunities.

This keylist features resources that support inclusive wage-employment initiatives. We welcome your feedback: please send comments or suggested additions to sourceassistant@hi-uk.org.

Selected resources

Books, reports, etc

A new financial access frontier - people with disabilities

GOLDSTEIN, Josh
June 2010

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This note provides the background for a roundtable discussion held on June 18, 2010 in Washington, DC, convened by the Center for Financial Inclusion (CFI), in partnership with the Disability and Development Team of the World Bank, at which representatives from microfinance institutions and Disability Organizations deliberated on how they can best contribute to increasing access to financial services for poor people with disabilities worldwide. After a brief discussion of the challenge and the opportunity, the note advances several working hypotheses about steps the microfinance industry could take. 

Achieving equal employment opportunities for people with disabilities through legislation : an education and training guide

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION
2011

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This education and training guide has been designed to support improved capacity of governments in collaboration with social partners and civil society agencies to design, implement and evaluate legislation that effectively supports equal employment opportunities for people with disabilities. It presents seven modules outlining different methods and strategies in for practitioners and advocates individuals to achieve a positive legislative impact

Achieving professional integration of young people with disabilities - Collection of good practices and shared experiences in Casablanca, Morocco

TORRECILLA, Audrey
November 2016

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This publication aims to analyze and disseminate good practices implemented throughout the project called "Improving access to employment for Young people with disabilities in the Greater Casablanca. " To assess the success of this project, it was needed to meet the people with disabilities that benefited from work placement in the companies. The following testimonies come from smiling, dynamic people who, thanks to a stable employment, are able to project into the future.Their disability has become "a detail": for their Colleagues, they are Anouar, Zineb, Mustafa, Anas, Yasmine ... competent staff who as everyone in the company brings an added value. Rabii And Sanaa, who both work as inclusion agents at the AMH Group and in the association called ANAÏS, contributed greatly to these personal and professional achievements. Every day they accompany, advise, facilitate training, prepare disabled young people for the labor market, but they also approach companies and propose nominations. The career paths exposed in this publication are encouraging towards continuing their efforts, along with ANAPEC and the other players at stake in the inclusion sector: not only professional, but also every Moroccan companies and the CGEM, to allow Young people with disabilities to access to stable and rewarding work places. As for the companies, the results speak for themselves: trained human resources departments, formalized action plans to implement disability policies, CSR targets achieved, and skilled employees providing added value to the teams.

Career guidance : a resource handbook for low- and middle-income countries

HANSEN, Ellen
2006

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This handbook provides information about career guidance in low and middle income countries. It is divided into two parts. Part I reviews current international trends in career guidance in high-income countries, comments on the relevance of these trends in low- and middle-income countries, and defines a framework of six key elements when developing a career guidance system. Part II indicates specific career guidance Internet web sites and resources. This resource is useful to policy makers, professionals, practitioners interested in career guidance in low and middle income countries

Disability and poverty in developing countries : a snapshot from the World Health Survey

MITRA, Sophie,
POSARAC, Aleksandra,
VICK, Brandon
April 2011

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This paper outlines the economic and poverty situation of working-age persons with disabilities and their households in 15 developing countries. Using data from the World Health Survey, the study presents estimates of disability prevalence, individual-level economic well-being, household-level economic well-being, and multidimensional poverty measure. Detailed appendices are provided to support the results of the study. This paper is useful for people interested in the social and economic conditions of people with disabilities in developing countries
Social Protection Discussion Paper No 1109

Disability at a glance 2015: Strengthening employment prospects for persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific

UN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (ESCAP), Social Development Division
2015

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This report, the fifth edition in the Disability at a Glance series, focuses on barriers to the employment of persons with disabilities in the Asia-Pacific region, and offers solutions to strengthen their employment prospects. It offers a regional overview of disability legislation, policies and practices, as well as relevant country-specific information with a particular emphasis on the employment of persons with disabilities. The information is drawn from a targeted disability survey carried out in 2015 by the ESCAP secretariat, and research undertaken by other organizations and scholars.

The publication consists mainly of two parts. In Part 1, Chapter 1 discusses key employment trends shaping the experiences of persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific. Chapter 2 considers the major barriers that persons with disabilities face as they seek to find decent work in the open labour market. Chapter 3 explores a number of strategies used by governments and in the private sector to promote greater access to employment for persons with disabilities. Finally, Chapter 4 lays out a series of action points governments should consider in their efforts to remove the numerous employment barriers faced by many millions of disabled people. In Part 2, country snapshots provide the latest demographic, socioeconomic and employment-specific data from 58 countries in 5 ESCAP subregions .

Disability in the workplace : company practices

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (ILO)
2010

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This paper is "a compilation of 25 company profiles, which describes how companies address hiring and retention, products and services and corporate social responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of disability. The publication is for companies, employers’ organizations and other representative business organizations, workers’ organizations, ILO staff, people with disabilities, and others interested in learning about company practices as it relates to disability. It is one of the first knowledge sharing initiatives of the ILO Global Business and Disability Network"
Working Paper No 3

Disability in the workplace : employers' organizations and business networks

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (ILO)
2011

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This paper is "a compilation of 12 case studies of employers’ organizations and business networks, describing their activities related to disability and employment. The publication is intended for employers’ organizations and other representative business organizations, companies, workers’ organizations, ILO staff, people with disabilities, and others interested in learning about the inclusion of disabled people in the workplace. It contributes to the knowledge sharing activities of the ILO Global Business and Disability Network"
Working Paper No 6

Disability, poverty, and livelihoods guide : guidance from Trickle Up

SANSON, Jo,
FELIX, Michael
November 2013

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"This guide is intended to encourage and assist organizations seeking to include people with disabilities in their economic strengthening and livelihood programs. It contains lessons for organizations that aim to move households out of poverty, [and] those that seek to economically and socially empower particularly vulnerable members of poor household"

Disabled employee networks : a practical guide

NASH, Kate
2009

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This practical guide details on how to set up, deliver and maintain a disabled employment network or disability interest group in both the public and the private sector. It provides advice for employers and employees and contains basic guidelines, checklists, templates and best practice papers

Employment assessment toolkit

ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BLIND PEOPLE (RNIB)
2013

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"The toolkit enables employment advisors who work with blind and partially sighted people to gain a clear understanding of what your client’s aspirations are in relation to employment, and what types of support and development are needed to help fulfil these aspirations. It provides a way of having a structured conversation with clients...The questions in the toolkit should be self-explanatory. They are arranged under different sub-sections: employment activity, current job search activity, access to information, computer skills, independent travel, vision, health related issues, and target job"
Note: It is recommended to use this toolkit in conjunction with the action plan development kit; the toolkit is available to download in four different formats: PDF, Word, Word non-breaking table, and Word text only

Helping chronically ill or disabled people into work : what can we learn from international comparative analyses?

WHITEHEAD Margaret
et al
April 2009

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This report compares employment outcomes in countries that vary in their policies for people with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The report includes a policy review and analysis, observational studies and a synthesis of evidence from the selected countries on evaluation studies of the impact of the identified policies and interventions. This report is useful people interested in employment outcomes for people with disabilities relating to national policies

ILO code of practice on managing disability in the workplace

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO)
2001

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This code of practice gives guidance to employers and governments on how disabled people can be included in the work process. It includes sections on recruitment, accessibility and adaptations. Some examples of policy and legislation are given, mostly from Northern countries

Inclusion made easy : part B|Disability inclusion : livelihood

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
May 2012

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The inclusion of people with a disability in all livelihood approaches, including formal employment, income generation projects, skills development and access to loans and financial services is important and practical support proposals are provided based on rights based principles including:

  • Awareness of disability and its implications
  • Participation and active involvement of people with a disability
  • Comprehensive accessibility through addressing physical, communication, policy and attitudinal barriers
  • Twin track enabling full inclusion through mainstream access working alongside disability specific supports

 

A case study Improving socio-economic support for people with a disability, based in Laos, is provided. 

There is a checklist for disability inclusion in livelihood programs.

Inclusion of youth with disabilities: The business case

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION
January 2014

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This is a how-to guide for companies interested in integrating youth with disabilities into their workforce. "This guide is based on initiatives that are currently tried out by ten companies to employ youth with disabilities in eight countries (Brazil, Chile, China, India, Norway, Republic of Serbia, Singapore and the United States). Good practices and useful insights are identified and explained through first-hand accounts. First, the business case for employing youth with disabilities is made. This section will highlight how two companies benefited from initiatives to employ youth with disabilities. Next, four reoccurring good practices that were cited in the featured cases are given particular consideration:

  • partner with an organization that specializes in disability services;
  • provide (when necessary) disability-accessible skills training;
  • offer recruitment and job placement services;
  • embrace a policy of inclusion and non-discrimination"

Inclusive employment : how to develop projects which promote the employment of people with disabilities and other vulnerable populations

LEYMAT, Anne
2012

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"This policy paper applies the mandate and values of Handicap International to inclusive employment activities. It sets out the benchmarks for Handicap International’s actions, choices and approaches and seeks to ensure consistent practice between the organisation’s programmes while taking into account the different contexts in which they operate. It is intended as a guide for teams working in this sector of activity. It defines the themes, explains how these activities fit into the organisation’s mandate, identifies the target populations and defines modalities of intervention (standard expected outcomes, standard activities) as well as monitoring and evaluation indicators"

Is there a disability gap in employment rates in developing countries?

MIZUNOYA , Suguru,
MITRA , Sophie
June 2012

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"This paper examines differences in employment rates between persons with and without disabilities in 15 developing countries using the World Health Survey. (The authors) find that people with disabilities have lower employment rates than persons without disabilities in nine countries. Across countries, disability gaps in employment rates are more often found for men than women. The largest disability gap in employment rates is found for persons with multiple disabilities. For countries with a disability gap, results from a logistic decomposition suggest that observable characteristics of persons with/without disabilities do not explain most of the gap"

Job and work analysis : guidelines on identifying jobs for persons with disabilities

HERON, Robert
2005

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These guidelines provide information about job and work analysis to promote employment opportunities for persons with disabilities. Practical steps and definitions are outlined in each topic-specific chapter. It is a useful document for employment services and service providers seeking to develop their capacity to promote the recruitment of persons with disabilities and the retention of workers who acquire a disability.
These guidelines form part of a series of ILO tools on placement services for disabled job seekers

Job creation in postconflict societies

BEASLEY, Kenneth W
April 2006

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This paper discusses the main justifications for job creation projects after serious conflict or natural disaster. Major lessons and best practices are reviewed to guide the design and implementation of job creation projects as components of peacekeeping, humanitarian, transitional, or transformational development programs. This paper is useful for people interested in job creation in post-conflict societies

Making microfinance accessible to persons with disabilities: awareness and attitudes among Indian microfinance institutions

GUPTA, Vin
May 2014

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This research focuses on three stakeholders: Microfinance Institutions (MFIs), Persons with Disabilities (PWD), and non-disabled clients. It attempts to highlight the following:

  • Understanding of MFIs about disability, their perceptions of persons with disabilities, and their preparedness to include them as potential clients
  • Concerns and apprehensions of PWD to becoming potential MFI clients
  • Views of non-disabled clients on including PWD in their groups

The study investigates the knowledge and the perceptions about disability among each stakeholder group and attempts to elucidate how that impacts the ability of PWD to access microfinance services. Four microfinance institutions of different geographic areas were studied. The survey inolved 1,000 people of whom 57 were disabled. 

Placement of job-seekers with disabilities : elements of an effective service. Asian and Pacific edition

MURRAY, Barbara,
HERON, Robert
2003

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Job placement services for disabled people have been the focus of increasing global attention as awareness about the difficulty disabled people have in seeking jobs has grown. This book gives background to job placement services and describes the necessary policy and legislative framework for these services to be effective. The four key components of a job placement service (preparation for jobs, job placement, self-employment and publicity and promotion) are described, and monitoring and evaluation of the service are explained.

Promoting equality and addressing discrimination - Disability: Inclusive approaches for productive work

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (ILO)
May 2013

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Part 6.3 of the ILO's "The Informal Economy and Decent Work: A Policy Resource Guide supporting transitions to formality"

Key challenges are discussed:

  • Marginalization from the mainstream economy
  • Weak data to support policy development
  • Attitudinal barriers and social exclusion
  • Low educational levels
  • Skills gaps
  • Labour market discrimination
  • Weak policy and legal environment

and emerging approaches and good practices are presented:

  • A rights based approach
  • Inclusive strategies
  • Addressing data challenges
  • Expanding labour market opportunities
  • Education policies
  • Overcoming skills gaps
  • Making training accessible
  • Community Based Rehabilitation 
  • Changing policy and legal frameworks
  • Awareness raising and knowledge sharing

Situation of wage employment of people with disabilities (Ten developing countries in focus)

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
December 2016

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One of the fundamental rights that is often denied to persons with disabilities is the right to employment. Based on 35 years of work with persons with disabilities in more than 60 developing countries, Handicap International has decided to study this issue of employment and disability. It challenges ten developing country teams to reach out to their local partners to capture the reality of employment today. This qualitative study gives very useful information about country teams’ vision of decent work for persons with disabilities in those environments where specialized resources are rare and inclusive policies remain in their infancy. Despite many obstacles, it identifies some positive promises and future tracks for better practices and efficient services. Many stakeholders, like local business and employment bureaus, are piloting innovative ways to get people to work, and to retain their skills as this positive dynamic evolves. Bringing these experiences to different audiences is the main goal of this document. Hopefully it will be the first piece of a more comprehensive data set and bank of best practices that reinforce access to decent jobs for people with disabilities wherever they happen to live in our global world.

Sustained and inclusive growth : employment and social protection

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)

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“This short policy brief sets out recommendations concerning four key issues relating to persons with disabilities and their inclusion in economic growth and social protection strategies. Each of these issues resonates with the current narrative in the post-2015 development framework for decent work and an adequate standard of living”

The economic benefits of increasing the employment for people with disability

DELOITTE ACCESS ECONOMICS
August 2011

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This report estimates the increase in economic output that could be achieved by increasing employment outcomes for people with disabilities…The economic modelling presented in this report suggests that closing the gap between labour market participation rates and unemployment rates for people with and without disabilities by one-third would result in a cumulative $43 billion increase in Australia’s GDP over the next decade in real dollar terms. The modelling also suggests that GDP will be around 0.85% higher over the longer term, which is equivalent to an increase in GDP in 2011 of $12 billion.

The policy and program mechanisms for achieving these outcomes are not explicitly addressed in this report, nor does it address the costs associated with achieving an increase in employment participation. Rather, the aim of this report is to present the potential benefits associated with increasing employment participation for people with disabilities and provide a reference point for future policy discussion

Thematic study on the work and employment of persons with disabilities : report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (OHCHR)
December 2012

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"The present study focuses on the work and employment of persons with disabilities. It analyses relevant provisions of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, highlights good practices in promoting employment opportunities for persons with disabilities, and identifies the main challenges that States parties encounter in ensuring that persons with disabilities enjoy access to, retention of and advancement in employment on an equal basis with others"
A/HRC/22/25
Note: Easy read version is available in English in both pdf and word formats

Databases

Job ability

SUHINDRA, C.N
2011

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"This database provides various sources of information related to livelihoods opportunities for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Users can complete a registration form online to access information, guidance, support and learning opportunities, as well as search and apply for jobs. This resource is useful for people with disabilities interested in livelihoods opportunities"

Multimedia

Websites

ILO global business and disability network

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (ILO)

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The ILO Global Business and Disability Network is a network of multinational entreprises, employers' organizations, business networks and disabled persons' organizations who share the conviction that people with disabilities have talents and skills that can enhance virtually any business. The Network wishes to foster the development of a workforce culture that is respectful and inclusive; promoting the hiring, retention and professional development of people with disabilities. The Network's mission is to raise business awareness about the positive relationship between the inclusion of people with disabilities in the workplace and business success. We serve companies of all sizes and markets by encouraging knowledge-sharing and joint activities thus building disability expertise, facilitating the development of national networks and promoting the business and human rights cases for disability inclusion in the workplace.