Disability inclusive DRR

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is, as defined by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), “the concept and practise of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events”. DRR aims to avoid, lessen or transfer the adverse effects of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods, droughts and cyclones through activities and measures for prevention, mitigation and preparedness.

Considering that some groups, including people with disabilities, are at higher risk in relation to disasters and their adverse effects, inclusive DRR is an effort to reduce vulnerabilities of the people who are most at risk, and to increase their capacities to reduce the risks associated with disasters. Inclusive DRR is also the recognition of the right of these groups to benefit from and participate in disaster relief, emergency response and DRR strategy.

A comprehensive approach to reduce disaster risk is set out in the UN Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015 - 2030 and this approach is often endorsed through national disaster risk reduction plans.  There are close links between DRR and Disaster Risk Management (DRM) which is also highlighted in the DRM key list.

This key list contains key resources that provide a general introduction to DRR with related concepts and approaches, and then features practical manuals, case studies and sector-specific information.  We welcome your suggestions: please send comments or suggested additions to sourceassistant@hi-uk.org

Selected resources

General introduction

Disability and disaster risk reduction : celebrating DRR day

CARE INTERNATIONAL
January 2013

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This resource is a special edition of CARE International's disaster risk reduction community of practice quarterly newsletter to celebrate global disaster risk reduction day.  It focuses on disability inclusion in disaster risk reduction programming and presents different organisations' experiences of inclusive disaster risk reduction in different regions

CI DRR CoP Newsletter, quarterly

Disability inclusive DRR network (DiDRRN)

DISABILITY INCLUSIVE DRR NETWORK (DiDRRN)

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This website presents the work of the Disability inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction Network (DiDRRN), which is a group of partners working with government and non-governmental colleagues to raise awareness on the importance of disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction. The website contains information about the network and its partners, as well as a wide array of free resources on disability and disasters, ranging from recent news to Disaster Risk Reduction log frames and global events

Disability–inclusive disaster risk reduction in Asia and the Pacific

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (UNESCAP)
April 2014

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“This note provides background information on disability and disaster risk reduction and the respective normative frameworks. It considers key elements of disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction and provides a brief overview of disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction (DiDRR) in the Asian and Pacific region. It also outlines the next steps towards the development of the post-2015 DRR framework. Terms that are commonly used in the fields of disaster risk reduction and disability are listed with definitions in Annex 1”

Asia-Pacific Meeting on Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction: Changing Mindsets through Knowledge

Sendai, Japan

22-23 April 2014

Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction 2015

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNISDR)
2015

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This report assesses current trends in global Disaster Risk Management (DRM) including strategies adopted by different countries and associated costs/risks. The report concludes by advising that global DRM is strengthened in a number of areas, including improvements in the global governance structure surrounding DRM, a deepening of the global knowledge about DRM techniques and practices, and the development of more robust accountability and assessment methodologies

Including persons with disabilities in disaster risk reduction

DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
et al

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“In this position paper, German Development and Disabled People’s Organizations stress the need to mainstream disability in disaster risk reduction.” The report outlines the need for increased recognition of disability in planning for disasters, and c provides recommendations with reference to the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 

Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015 - 2030

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNISDR)
2015

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The Sendai Framework is the UN framework/action plan governing Disaster Risk Reduction for the period 2015-2030. It "is built on elements which ensure continuity with the work done by States and other stakeholders under the (Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015) HFA and introduces a number of innovations as called for during the consultations and negotiations…The Sendai Framework also articulates the following: the need for improved understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of exposure, vulnerability and hazard characteristics; the strengthening of disaster risk governance, including national platforms; accountability for disaster risk management; preparedness to “Build Back Better”; recognition of stakeholders and their roles; mobilization of risk-sensitive investment to avoid the creation of new risk; resilience of health infrastructure, cultural heritage and work-places; strengthening of international cooperation and global partnership, and risk-informed donor policies and programs, including financial support and loans from international financial institutions. There is also clear recognition of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and the regional platforms for disaster risk reduction as mechanisms for coherence across agendas, monitoring and periodic reviews in support of UN Governance bodies”

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, Third UN World Conference
Sendai, Japan
18 March 2015

Towards a post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNISDR)
March 2012

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The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA), Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, is the inspiration for knowledge, practice, implementation, experience and the science for disaster risk reduction. This paper outlines an approach and shapes the discussions on a continuation to be considered at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in 2015. It provides background information (Section A); an outline of trends, progress and challenges (Section B); and, a discussion on what form of a post-2015 framework (Section C). The paper also outlines a consultation process, timeline (Section D), and maps out main events to 2015 (see Timeline)

Key concepts and approaches

Analysis : how to make disasters less deadly for the disabled

INTEGRATED REGIONAL INFORMATION NETWORKS (IRIN)
September 2013

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This article highlights research that has shown that in disasters, people with disabilities are among the most vulnerable. If their impairment affects their ability to move or communicate, they are not only at greater risk of death, injury and isolation, but may also struggle to access humanitarian assistance and information about relief services available. In addition, communities and governments lack information about the needs and capacities of persons with disabilities, and therefore frequently exclude them from disaster plans and protocols.  The paper aims to assist initiatives that enable people with disabilities in disaster to understand ways of becoming more “resilient” as well as proposing risk reduction practices and services

Children with disabilities and disaster risk reduction : a review

RONOH, Steve,
GAILLARD, JC,
MARLOWE, Jay
March 2015

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“This article highlights the existing research and knowledge gap between existing knowledge and continuing research being done on similar topics. The review includes literature from two areas of scholarship in relation to disasters—children, and people with disabilities—and provides a critique of the prevailing medical, economic, and social discourses that conceptualize disability and associated implications for DRR. The article analyses the different models in which disability has been conceptualized, and the role this has played in the inclusion or exclusion of children with disabilities in DRR activities and in determining access to necessary resources in the face of disaster. Finally, the study explores possible pathways to studying the contribution and involvement of children with disabilities in DRR”

International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, Volume 6 Issue 1

Disability inclusive disaster risk reduction

FUHRER, Mechthilde
2014

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This article outlines the Council of Europe’s EUR-OPA Hazards Agreement, which is a platform for co-operation in the field of major natural and technological disasters between Europe and the South of the Mediterranean. The article reports on the agreement, concluding that “people with disabilities, and the organisations that represent them, need to be drawn into the civil protection preparedness process”

Planet@risk, Vol 2, No 3

How to include and empower the vulnerable in disaster risk reduction

OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (ODI)
November 2014

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 “This event is one of a new event series Rethinking International Policy for Reducing Disaster Risk hosted by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). The series examines some of the more thorny issues involved in renegotiating the Hyogo Framework for Action, including public private partnerships, use of risk assessments, fragile states and conflict and effective governance for DRR, amongst others”

ODI seminar “How to include and empower the vulnerable in disaster risk reduction”

London, UK

25 November 2014

Sendai statement to promote disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction for resilient, inclusive and equitable societies in Asia and the Pacific

REHABILITATION INTERNATIONAL,
UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMISSION ON ASIA AND THE PACIFIC,
NIPPON FOUNDATION
April 2014

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This Statement documents attendees of the Asia Pacific Meeting on Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction’s joint understanding that “Disability inclusion in disaster risk reduction is critical for the creation of resilient, inclusive and equitable societies.” The state goes on to commit attendees to push for greater participation of men, women, and children alongside policymakers in the creation of new disaster risk reduction policy. The statement focuses on the Core messages; specific action for disability inclusion in disaster risk reduction; and strategic action for disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction in order to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities in the conversation regarding disaster risk reduction

Asia-Pacific Meeting on Disability-inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction: Changing Mindsets through Knowledge

22-23 April 2014

Sendai, Japan

The checklist on law and disaster risk reduction : pilot version

UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP),
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED SCRESCENT SOCIETIES
March 2015

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This “checklist provides a prioritized and succinct list of ten key questions that lawmakers, implementing officials, and those supporting them need to consider in order to ensure that their laws provide the best support for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). It covers not only dedicated Disaster Risk Management (DRM) laws but also other sectoral laws and regulations that are critical for building safety and resilience, as well as the environment, land and natural resource management” 

The future framework for disaster risk reduction : a guide for decision makers

KELLETT, Jan
et al
June 2014

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“This guide to the future framework for disaster risk reduction (DRR) is intended for decision-makers, particularly those in government responsible for contributing to the new agreement. The guide is organised into a set of modules, each representing important aspects of the successor to the existing Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). By presenting evidence in the form of data, facts and summary messages, the modules [in this report] highlight what should be covered by a new agreement. There are seven modules: Making the case, The architecture, Financing, Vulnerability, and inclusion, Climate change, Conflict and fragility,  Stakeholders and leadership”

DRR manuals and guides

Disaster resilience in an ageing world : how to make policies and programmes inclusive of older people

HELPAGE INTERNATIONAL
2014

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“This publication aims to promote age-inclusive resilience-building among practitioners and policy-makers. It gives a comprehensive overview of how resilience-building programmes should be designed and implemented to ensure the inclusion of older people. It also highlights the benefits of including and empowering older people through DRR and resilience-building activities. By applying an older people lens to DRR programming, which involves assessing the specific vulnerabilities and capacities of older people and encouraging them to take a more proactive role, we can support older people to become more resilient – with wide ranging benefits for themselves, their families, and their wider communities. We have included case studies to highlight good practice, demonstrating what can be achieved by working for and with older people” 

Guidelines for assisting people with disabilities during emergencies, crises and disasters : European and Mediterranean major hazards agreement

ALEXANDER, David,
SAGRAMOLA, Sivlo
January 2014

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This set of guidelines is intended to ensure that national governments, and their counterparts at regional and local level, civil society organisations and relevant offices in both the public and private sector obtain a clear idea of how to proceed with the provision of disaster risk reduction for people with disabilities. It begins with a set of working definitions and then considers the requirements of good preparedness during all the phases of crisis management: mitigation and planning (disaster risk reduction), alert, emergency action, and recovery. The care of people with disabilities needs to be considered with respect to all of these phases

AP/CAT (2013) 11

Guidelines of disaster risk reduction : disability and disaster

GLOBAL ALLIANCE ON ACESSIBLE TECHNOLOGIES AND ENVIRONMENTS (GAATES),
ASIA DISASTER PREPAREDNESS CENTER (ADPC),
ASIA PACIFIC BROADCASTING UNION (ABU)
2014

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This report aims to raise awareness about inclusive policies, practices and disaster risk reduction strategies that address the accessibility of communication, shelter, transportation and early warning systems. The guidelines also hope to foster collaboration between disaster preparedness organizations, broadcasters and organizations of persons with disabilities to mainstreaming disability issues in disaster risk reduction strategies. These goals are achieved through discussion of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, inclusive disaster risk reduction, and concern for the inclusive nature of evacuation protocols for older people and people with disabilities, access to services, disaster risk reduction, and communication strategies

Mainstreaming disability in community based disaster risk reduction : a facilitator’s guide

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
2008

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This Guide has been developed in conjunction with the Training Manual to support a four-day training course on Mainstreaming Disability in Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR). The Training Manual and the Facilitator’s Guide provide trainers, project officers and field level practitioners with the resources to make DRR disability inclusive. This resource also provides information to managers and policy makers in government and non-government organisations to address the inclusion of disability issues in CBDRR. It is designed to be used as a tool to conduct trainings and to support work with community groups and other stakeholders

 

The Facilitator’s Guide elaborates upon the Training Manual by detailing a step-by-step training methodology for the topics addressed in the course. Each topic in the Guide includes: Learning objectives, key messages, key steps and a process outline, suggested session times, materials needed and additional resources and materials to supplement learning. The Facilitator's Guide provides a broad outline to the training through the topics, and trainers may adapt and modify the session plans to the particular circumstances of the training - further tips for trainers have been provided in the annex of the Guide

Supplement to technical report 2 : capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia : practitioner guidelines for capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney,
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This report is a supplement to the Technical Report 'Capacity Building for Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia'. Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction (DiDRR) is increasingly recognised as an important component of community resilience in the event of a natural disaster as documented in the recent outcome of the 3rd World Conference, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Central to DiDDR is people with disabilities themselves and their capacities to participate in, and contribute to disaster risk reduction policies, practices and programs

 

The Practitioner Guidelines provide orientation to the Work Packages undertaken to build the capacity of people with disabilities in disaster risk reduction in Indonesia as part of the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australian Development and Research Awards Scheme funded project, 2013-2015, Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia. These Work Packages formed one component of the project with knowledge transfer and capacity building supplemented by other methods within the project, including coaching and sponsoring participation of select trainees at key post-2015 DRR policy events

Practical case studies

Disaster preparedness for vulnerable populations : determining effective strategies for communicating risk, warning, and response

SULLIVAN, Helen T,
HAKKINEN, Markku T
January 2006

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"Vulnerable populations, including those with disabilities, the elderly, the situationally disabled, and those with special needs are at particular risk in a disaster. Communicating preparedness and warning information is critical for these groups...This paper explores the challenges faced by vulnerable populations and discusses strategies that may prove effective in providing preparedness information to these groups. An ongoing project to develop accessible Tsunami preparedness information in Japan is described and the applicability of the results globally is discussed"

Empowerment and participation : good practices from South & South-East Asia in disability inclusive disaster risk management

BOLTE, Patrick,
MARR, Samadhi,
SITOMPU, Dewi
et al
2014

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This report presents good practices showing examples of inclusion and active participation of persons with disabilities in disaster risk management. The paper is structured in three sections that illustrate general recommendations towards greater participation of persons with disabilities.

Section A provides the background on disability inclusive disaster risk management and reviews existing guidelines as to how the participation of people with disabilities in disaster risk management can be facilitated. 

Section B contains the actual good practices, structured in three separate chapters that illustrate general recommendations towards greater participation of persons with disabilities. Each practice highlights the involvement of individual persons as well as groups, describes the initial setting, the achievements, and the lessons learned from the practice. Each practice concludes with a box with key insights.

The final section C presents the key recommendations that can be drawn from the good practices and that are geared to inform future programming

Living with disability and disasters : UNISDR 2013 survey on living with disabilities and disasters : key findings

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNISDR)
2014

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This report discusses "the results of the first-ever UN global survey of persons living with disabilities (PWDs) on how they cope with disasters, illustrates why they die, or are injured, in disproportionate numbers in disasters. Survey responses from 5,717 persons from all over the world reveal that persons living with disabilities are rarely consulted about their needs in potential disaster situations." The report concludes with a number of recommendations for how to develop disaster risk reduction practises that include people with disabilities

Mainstreaming persons with disabilities into disaster risk reduction

VERMA, Colonel N. M.,
KADAM, Smita
March 2015

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This case study presents Saritsa Foundations work in India. Saritsa Foundation has been organizing capacity building workshops for persons living with disabilities since June 2000, in rural and urban areas in nine states of India. About 10,050 persons living with disabilities have been given opportunities to develop skills to respond to disasters and protect themselves

The World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), HFA Case Study
 

Participatory evaluation report : mainstreaming disability in emergency response and local development

BARI, Nazmul
April 2012

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“The project “Mainstreaming Disability in Emergency Response and Local Development” implemented by CHEF International, Pakistan, supported by Light for the World was evaluated in March 2012. The evaluation attempted to understand the local context within which the project was implemented to enable a better reflection of learning including the project’s achievements, its ripple effects, limitations, barriers, and then to identify future directions”

Technical report 2 : capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney,
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This is the second Technical Report in a three part series, 'Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia'. This Technical Report details the Capacity Building component of the Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia project. This project was funded by the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australian Development and Research Awards Scheme 2013-2015. This award scheme promotes research and development programs through collaboration between researchers in Australia and elsewhere and INGOs and NGOs in country

 

Relevant to capacity building, two aims of the Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia project were:

1. To increase the understanding of people with disabilities of Disaster Risk Reduction and their capacity to engage with Disaster Risk Reduction policy; and,

2. To understand and subsequently inform the knowledge base of village volunteers (Kaders subsequently referred to as cadres) and DRR administrators about DiDRR at local and national levels in Indonesia

Donors

Finance for reducing disaster risk : 10 things to know

WATSON, Cherlene
et al
March 2015

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This report focuses on the basics of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) finance and the opportunities that the Post-2015 development finance landscape can offer. The resource analyses DRR spending trends and identifies a number of potential funding sources, both public and private. It concludes with a number of recommendations for future financing, particularly surrounding future international agreements on DRR

Financing disaster risk reduction : a 20 year study of international aid

KELLETT, Jan,
CARAVANI, Alice
September 2013

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"The international financing of DRR, representing the international community’s support to national governments in their efforts to protect development gains from disasters, is coming under increasing scrutiny. This report examines the record of the international community to date, investigating the priorities in financing of DRR, and asking questions of both the equity and adequacy of past efforts. Beyond this it points to the future of a more rational, targeted investment in risk reduction"

DRR and climate change

Climate change and disaster risk reduction : mainstreaming disability

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
2014

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This thematic brief on the sustainable development goals provides key recommendations for the post 2015 goals to mainstream disability in climate change and disaster risk reduction.  It summarises key principles of inclusive climate change and disaster reduction policies and presents a case study of inclusive emergency response in the Philippines after typhoon Hayian

CBM thematic brief : sustainable development goals

Climate change and persons with disabilities

LOCKWOOD, Elizabeth
September 2014

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This blog follows the UN Climate Summit on Tuesday, 23 September 2014 in New York City. Due to this high-level event, climate change has been a pervasive topic at the UN and in NYC and this theme will continue to be important as the post-2015 development agenda progresses. With this increased emphasis on climate change – and related disaster risk reduction (DRR) – in the post-2015 process, this blog outlines why it is crucial that persons with disabilities are included in these conversations, debates and initiatives, and presents a number of recommendations

Climate change’s role in disaster risk reduction’s future : beyond vulnerability and resilience

KELMAN, Ilan,
GAILLARD, JC,
MERCER, Jessica
March 2015

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‘This article uses vulnerability and resilience to explore the intersections and overlaps amongst climate change, disaster risk reduction, and sustainability. Critiquing concepts such as “return to normal” and “double exposure” demonstrate how separating climate change from wider contexts is counterproductive. Climate change is one contributor to disaster risk and one creeping environmental change amongst many, and not necessarily the most prominent or fundamental contributor. Yet climate change has become politically important, yielding an opportunity to highlight and tackle the deep-rooted vulnerability processes that cause “multiple exposure” to multiple threats. To enhance resilience processes that deal with the challenges, a prudent place for climate change would be as a subset within disaster risk reduction. Climate change adaptation therefore becomes one of many processes within disaster risk reduction. In turn, disaster risk reduction should sit within development and sustainability to avoid isolation from topics wider than disaster risk. Integration of the topics in this way moves beyond expressions of vulnerability and resilience towards a vision of disaster risk reduction’s future that ends tribalism and separation in order to work together to achieve common goals for humanity’

The impact of climate change on people with disabilities

GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DISABILITY & DEVELOPMENT (GPDD)
2009

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This report presents information from the e-discussion which shared information and knowledge about the needs of people with disabilities and good practices for inclusion in situations such as natural and man-made disasters, emergencies, violence and conflict, scarcity of resources, and development efforts, all of which will be affected by climate change. Related resources and e-discussion questions are provided in the appendices
Impact of Climate Change on People with Disabilities
E-Discussion hosted by The Global Partnership for Disability and Development (GPDD) in partnership with the World Bank’s Disability and Development team
8-12 December 2009

Towards resilience : a guide to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

TURNBALL, Marilise,
STERRETT Charlotte L,
HILLEBOE, Amy
2013

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The guide provides information for the application of an integrated, rights-based approach to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. It features introductory information, principles of effective practice, guidelines for action in a range of sectors and settings, case studies and links to useful tools and resources. It is a resource for staff of development and humanitarian organisations working with people whose lives and rights are threatened by disasters and climate change

Disaster readiness and preparedness

Are you ready : disaster preparedness for people with disabilities

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION
February 2012

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This video presents Gallaudet University student Drew Sumner reads the American Public-Health Association's (APHA) disaster preparedness for people with disabilities, speaking in American Sign Language. The reading covers the basic principles of disaster preparedness, before providing more specific advise on things like emergency kits and who to contact in an emergency. Users can read the full text at APHA's "Get Ready" campaign website: http://www.getreadyforflu.org/newsite.htm

Emergency preparedness guide for people with disabilities/special needs

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ONTARIO
2007

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This guide covers topics relevant to the emergency preparedness needs of people with disabilities. The guide categorises different disabilities and types of impairment and provides information on how individuals with different impairments should prepare for an emergency, and how the non-disabled public can best assist a person with a disability in an emergency. The guide includes a preparedness checklist, as well as additional points of contact for further resources and information on the topic

Major hazards and people with disabilities : their involvement in disaster preparedness and response

ALEXANDER, David,
SAGRAMOLA, Sivlo
July 2014

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This manual on disability inclusive disaster preparedness and response provides an overview of the state of the art in emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction for people with disabilities.   It presents the definition of disability, ethics regarding protection and the shortfalls of the institutional framework for providing protection.  . It highlights that planning, training and exercising need to be improved, and examples of good practice should be adapted to new environments and circumstances. 

Prepare yourself : disaster readiness tips for people with disabilities

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION ON DISABILITY (NOD)

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This leaflet provides a list of considerations for those seeking to develop inclusive emergency plans. The leaflet contains practical advice and tips on how to do things like identify available resources and develop the emergency plan itself, as well as a checklist to help ensure emergency kits are appropriately stocked.

Community based DRR

Building capacity in six disadvantaged communities vulnerable to natural disasters

BERKE, Philip
et al
September 2008

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This paper aims "to describe and analyze an Emergency Preparedness Demonstration (EPD) project aimed at reducing the risk to life and property in six disadvantaged communities in Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. EPD involves a community-based participatory planning process aimed at building the capacity of disadvantaged communities threatened by disasters. To understand the successes and limitations of the EDP approach we used multiple sources of evidence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 key informants, field notes were taken during attendance of community planning meetings, and documentary materials prepared by local planning teams (memoranda, vulnerability assessments, household surveys) were content analyzed"

Community early warning systems : guiding principles

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES
January 2012

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"The Community early warning systems: guiding principles" is one of a set of guides prepared by the International Red Cross and Red Crescent societies that present guiding principles that will assist in building a strong foundation for the design or strengthening of early warning systems (EWS) at any level.   Written as a strategic, rather than  operational, guide it aims to provide an overview of successful practice from the field in developing early warning systems.  It provides a practical toolkit for the disaster risk reduction or risk management practitioner

Community-based DRR

PREVENTION WEB

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This section of Prevention Web website hosts a collection of resources on the organisations approach to Disaster Risk Reduction. The approach engages the local community in managing local disaster risk often with the collaboration of external actors from civil society, local government and the private sector. This section provides links to progress reports, meetings notes, training packs and academic resources on community based disaster risk reduction 

Disability inclusive community based disaster risk management : a toolkit for practice in South Asia

O’MEARA, Claire
2012

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This toolkit, developed as part of Handicap International’s project ‘Make community-based disaster risk management inclusive in South Asia,’ addresses issues faced by persons with disability and attempts to ensure that services and systems are adapted to meet the diverse needs of the community in reducing risk. It has been designed for use by disaster risk management practitioners and policy makers who wish to understand more about how to make community based disaster risk management (CBDRM) inclusive of persons with disabilities.

 

The first part establishes the rationale for taking an inclusive approach, firmly establishing the links between disability and disasters and the need for action on inclusion. Part Two provides practical guidance on how to make core CBDRM activities inclusive. Separated into eight individual booklets, it takes each activity in turn and highlights what needs to be taken into account both in planning and in implementation. The Toolbox contains a number of tools to complement the advice given in Part Two and support good practices in implementation. These tools can be taken and used as provided or adapted for use as necessary

 

SD/PG 01

Note: Soft copies of the tools are on the accompanying CD-Rom. An online version of the sections and tools​ are available to download inidividually from the link above

Establishing community based early warning system : practitioner's handbook

MERCY CORPS NEPAL,
PRACTICAL ACTION NEPAL
2010

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"This handbook is significant in providing the first comprehensive attempt in Nepal to provide a guide for the establishment of community based early warning Systems in flood prone communities. The book has brought together the materials drawn from Practical Action and Mercy Corps experiences in dealing with establishment of Community Based Early Warning Systems in a number of communities in the terai areas of Nepal, as well as the reference and experience of other organisations and agencies to this effect. This handbook with a facilitator’s guide and resource material will provide community trainers the tools to assist flood prone communities in establishing early warning systems"

Mainstreaming disability in community based disaster risk reduction : a facilitator’s guide

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
2008

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This Guide has been developed in conjunction with the Training Manual to support a four-day training course on Mainstreaming Disability in Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR). The Training Manual and the Facilitator’s Guide provide trainers, project officers and field level practitioners with the resources to make DRR disability inclusive. This resource also provides information to managers and policy makers in government and non-government organisations to address the inclusion of disability issues in CBDRR. It is designed to be used as a tool to conduct trainings and to support work with community groups and other stakeholders

 

The Facilitator’s Guide elaborates upon the Training Manual by detailing a step-by-step training methodology for the topics addressed in the course. Each topic in the Guide includes: Learning objectives, key messages, key steps and a process outline, suggested session times, materials needed and additional resources and materials to supplement learning. The Facilitator's Guide provides a broad outline to the training through the topics, and trainers may adapt and modify the session plans to the particular circumstances of the training - further tips for trainers have been provided in the annex of the Guide

Malawi : DoDMA exploring indigenous knowledge on disasters

KAZEMBE, Ida
May 2015

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This article contains an interview with Mulder Mkutumula, Mitigation Officer at the Department of Disaster Management Affairs in Malawi. Mr. Mkutumula discusses the importance of raising awareness and understanding of disaster risk reduction in Malawi, especially in the context of the 2015 floods

Participatory evaluation report : mainstreaming disability in emergency response and local development

BARI, Nazmul
April 2012

Expand view

“The project “Mainstreaming Disability in Emergency Response and Local Development” implemented by CHEF International, Pakistan, supported by Light for the World was evaluated in March 2012. The evaluation attempted to understand the local context within which the project was implemented to enable a better reflection of learning including the project’s achievements, its ripple effects, limitations, barriers, and then to identify future directions”

Using geographic information system technology to improve emergency management and disaster response for people with disabilities

ENDERS, Alexandra,
BRANDT, Zachary
2007

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Geographic information systems (GIS) technology provides the ability to spatially coordinate resources from separate systems.  GIS provides the capacity for the identification of at-risk people with disabilities and actively address the interaction of people and their environment.  Mapping resources, and not just people, in the environment can change the perception and portrayal of people with disabilities in disaster incidents from people with “special needs” to people and organizations that are community contributors

Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Vol 17, No 4

Vulnerability and capacity assessment guide

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)

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This guide helps to reduce the exposure of people to risks caused by disasters.  Assessing vulnerability and capacities provides opportunities for the collection of relevant information about communities and impending risks before the event occurs.  Guidance on how to prepare and initiate a vulnerability and capacity assessment is provided

DRR and gender

Gender inclusion for social resilience : a key factor in disaster risk reduction

POURNIK, Milad,
CHUNG, Jaeeun,
MILLER, Barbara
December 2012

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"This report offers a brief review of the concept of social resilience, especially in relation to natural disasters and with specific attention to women and girls as victims of disasters and active participants in disaster prevention and response. It next provides a summary of a conference that took place at the George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs on October 11, 2012, marking the United Nations International Day for Disaster Reduction and its 2012 theme, Women & Girls: The inVisible Source of Resilience. Last, it summarizes how social resilience can create more secure societies in a changing world"

Global Gender Program, Occasional Paper #2

Towards the post-2105 framework for disaster risk reduction (HFA2) : women as a force in resilience building, gender equality in disaster risk reduction

PREVENTION WEB
April 2014

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This paper argues that gender integration and women’s empowerment need to be approached within the paradigm shift in disaster risk reduction (DRR) thinking internationally, as embodied by the development of the post-2015 Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction. The paper outlines the background to the previous international framework, the Hyogo Framework for Action, and why women's integration should be an important priority for any further agreement. The paper then discusses the role and importance of women in DRR, and analyses lessons learned from the Hyogo Framework's implementation. Finally, the authors conclude by presenting a 'way forward' for increasing the inclusion of women in DRR, based on empowerment, data desegregation and local, national and international frameworks

DRR and livelihoods

Disaster risk reduction : a gender and livelihood perspective

GIULLIANI, Alessandra,
WENGER, Ruth,
WYMANN VON DACH, Susanne
Eds
August 2009

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This issue emphasizes how natural disasters impact and affect genders differently. It discusses the various ways in which using a gender based approach when dealing with natural disasters can have a significant difference in the lives of those in the disaster zone. It also addresses the degree of vulnerability from a gender aspect, and specifically the sensitivities that needs to be addressed

InfoResources Focus No 2/09

Resilient livelihoods : disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security framework programme

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
April 2013

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Through its disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) seeks to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events. The FAO Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme (DRR for FNS) serves to support and provide strategic direction, to FAO member countries and partners, for the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security programmes. The goal is to enhance the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the FNS of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups

Strengthening livelihood capacities to disaster risk reduction : compilation of change studies Kathmandu Nepal

BHANDARI, Dinanath,
MALAKAR, Yuwan
2011

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This collection of articles documents the lessons learned during the project implementation in Nepal. It describes the prevailing physical, institutional and socio economic context, and details the activities and its interventions. The collection presents a compilation of initiatives and their evaluated outcomes on improved and diversified livelihood strategies, including the adoption of new income earning opportunities with increased resilience and food security, and improved health and resilience of targeted communities while reducing their exposure to prevailing and future hazards

DRR and health

Andrew Mohanraj : mental well-being, disability and disaster risk reduction

MOHANRAJ, Andrew
January 2015

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This video is an interview of Andrew Mohanraj, Regional Mental Health Development Advisor from the Christian Blind Mission (CBM) International. He explains why mental well-being and disability are important issues to consider in disaster preparedness and recovery, how efforts to reduce disaster risks can better address the needs of persons with mental and physical disabilities, and lessons learned from his own experience

Expert group meeting on mental well-being, disability and disaster risk reduction

ITO, Akiko
December 2014

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This Expert Group Meeting was organised by United Nations University International Institute of Global Health (UNU-IIGH) and Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability, and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, in close collaboration with the World Bank Tokyo Development Center (TDLC) and the National Institute of Mental Health, Japan.  This video provides an overview of issues, trends and international norms and standards, as well as good practices and lessons learned from different countries related to mental well-being, disability and disaster risk reduction that were discussed

Expert Group Meeting on Mental Well-being, Disability and Disaster Reduction

Tokyo, Japan

November 2014

Mental health recommendations included in Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction

UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY
March 2015

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“The expert group was formed to address this challenge, bringing together UN experts to review evidence on mental well-being and disability related to disasters, share lessons learned and best practices, and develop recommendations for mainstreaming these issues in Disaster Risk Education.” This UN University report illustrates how disability and mental health should be highlighted as a priority in disaster risk reduction planning and execution. In addition, the group responsible for the report suggest that disability and mental health be integrated into any future discussions related to security and human rights. Finally, the group recommended that a United Nations working group be established to explore the ways in which policies and action effect or how these individuals can affect policy within the United Nations. 

DRR and education

Child-centred disaster risk reduction : building resilience through participation : lessons from Plan International

PLAN INTERNATIONAL
2010

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This report “presents the results and recommendations of a five-year programme and…includes a series of case studies illustrating how child-centred Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) supports the delivery of the Hyogo Framework’s Priorities for Action, as well as the realisation of children’s rights to education, health and participation within disaster risk contexts…Child-centred Disaster Risk Reduction is an innovative approach to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) that fosters the agency of children and youth, in groups and as individuals, to work towards making their lives safer and their communities more resilient to disasters”

Child-centred DRR toolkit

FARAG, Phoebe,
HAWRYLYSHYN, Kelly
2010

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This toolkit is designed to help people working for international, national and local non-government organisations working with children in supporting community-based disaster risk reduction work. The toolkit has four modules:

  1. Training children on Disaster Risk Reduction through the hazard, vulnerability and capacity assessment
  2. Planning, monitoring and evaluating child-centred disaster risk reduction programmes
  3. Action planning with children on Disaster Risk Reduction
  4. Advocacy with children on disaster risk reduction

Disaster risk reduction and education

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
May 2011

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This resource outlines UNICEF's approach to disaster risk reduction in schools, arguing that they present a potent environment to embed disaster reduction principles and planning in a community. The resource provides evidence from a number of UNICEF programmes around the world detailing community responses to disasters that UNICEF helped to facilitate. Finally, the piece closes with an argument for education of children in disaster risk reduction processes given children are capable of understanding and contributing to effective DRR planning processes. This is linked to the fundamental rights of children, particularly the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Articles 6 (life, survival, development), 12 (respect for children's views), and 28 (right to education)

Search and rescue and first-aid task forces

Early warning systems

Community early warning systems : guiding principles

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES
January 2012

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"The Community early warning systems: guiding principles" is one of a set of guides prepared by the International Red Cross and Red Crescent societies that present guiding principles that will assist in building a strong foundation for the design or strengthening of early warning systems (EWS) at any level.   Written as a strategic, rather than  operational, guide it aims to provide an overview of successful practice from the field in developing early warning systems.  It provides a practical toolkit for the disaster risk reduction or risk management practitioner

Preparedness and warning systems for populations with special needs : ensuring everyone gets the message (and knows what to do)

SULLIVAN, Helen T ,
HÄKKINEN, Markku T
May 2011

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This paper discusses the use of information and communications technologies systems in the use of disaster management situations such as those providing early warnings, and how they benefit persons with disabilities (and the general population).  An ongoing project in Japan provided a case study in which a disaster preparedness information system is meeting the need of persons with disabilities


Geotechnical and Geological Engineering Journal, Volume 29, Issue 3

Saving lives : including people with disabilities in emergency planning

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY
April 2005

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This report provides an overview of the steps US federal government should take to include people with disabilities in emergency preparedness, disaster relief and homeland security program.  Key recommendations are provided and offer examples of community efforts to take account of the needs of people with disabilities

 

Note: This report is also available in alternative formats on the National Council on Disability's (NCD) website: http://www.ncd.gov/

Shelters

Disability and public shelter in emergencies

TWIGG, John
et al
2009

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This presentation presents the good practices, experiences, context and ways forward for disability and public shelter in emergencies and emphasises the need for inclusive emergency planning. This presentation is useful for people interested in disability and public shelter in emergencies
UCL Research Challenges 2009

Guidelines for creating barrier-free emergency shelters

CURTIN, Michael
February 2009

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This manual provides guidance on the design and building of barrier-free emergency shelters that are used by all people within a community following a natural disaster, such as a flood or landslide. It provides information with examples of the essential aspects to consider when designing and building barrier-free emergency shelters, such as ramps, toilets, cooking areas, waterpumps and shelters. Recommendations are also highlighted to ensure accessible environments for people with specific disabilities. The information for this manual is based upon a 'Mainstreaming disability and people with disabilities into disaster management in Nepal' project, which was implemented by Handicap International in December 2007. This manual is useful for people interested in the design and building of barrier-free emergency shelters

Resilience

Disaster resilience and people with functional needs

JAN, Sophia ,
LURIE, Nicole
December 2012

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This journal article focuses on initiatives to build community resilience particularly in the context of Hurricane Sandy.  The authors propose that the development of strong partnerships between government and non-governmental organisations for planning, response, and recovery is central to safeguarding the needs of people with functional needs in the event of disasters, as are policies that states and the federal government to promote community resilience 

The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 367, Issue 24

Equity and inclusion in disaster risk reduction : building resilience for all

LOVELL, Emma,
LE MASSON, Virginie
November 2014

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This briefing paper further develops the vulnerability and inclusion dimensions that were included in “The future framework for disaster risk reduction: a guide for decision-makers (Module 4).” It particularly addresses the following topics: marginalised groups are more likely to suffer from disasters; disasters exacerbate vulnerabilities and social inequalities; vulnerable groups should be included in DRR as active agents of change for resilience to be effective and equitable; vulnerable groups tend to be excluded from DRR decision-making, thus making them even more vulnerable to the impacts of disaster. Through promoting the socio-economic and cultural inclusion, as well as the political recognition of marginalised people, this paper provides examples of where their participation as active agents of change has proven beneficial for achieving effective and equitable resilience. This evidence supports recommendations for the inclusion and empowerment of vulnerable groups within the post-2015 framework for DRR

Towards resilience : a guide to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

TURNBALL, Marilise,
STERRETT Charlotte L,
HILLEBOE, Amy
2013

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The guide provides information for the application of an integrated, rights-based approach to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. It features introductory information, principles of effective practice, guidelines for action in a range of sectors and settings, case studies and links to useful tools and resources. It is a resource for staff of development and humanitarian organisations working with people whose lives and rights are threatened by disasters and climate change