Inclusive education (general)

Over recent years, approaches in education for children with disabilities have been moving from special needs education towards inclusive education, reflecting a change from the medical to the social model of disability, as well as a growing human rights focus in the disability field. In 1994, the Salamanca Statement declared that schools should accept all children regardless of disability or special educational need. This international statement was reinforced by article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities in 2006.

Inclusive Education is a process for increasing participation and reducing exclusion, in a way that effectively responds to the diverse needs of all learners. This means adapting the educational system to meet the needs of individuals, rather than changing the individual to fit the system.

The need for progress on inclusive education is crucial, especially given the context of international targets such as the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education by 2015 and the goal of Education for All (EFA) by 2015. All children have the right to education. Inclusive education aims to ensure the participation of all students in quality education, both in school and community settings, including resource-poor or crisis-affected settings.

Inclusive education not only refers to people with disabilities but to including all marginalised and vulnerable groups, including women and girls, ethnic minorities, street children, people living with HIV and so on. However, this Source keylist, in line with the rest of the collection, has a specific focus on disability-inclusive education.

The resources in this key list include practical guides, manuals and case-studies for practitioners, teachers, parents and school age children. It was compiled and reviewed in partnership with the Enabling Education Network (EENET). We welcome your suggestions: please send comments or suggested additions to sourceassistant@hi-uk.org.

Selected resources

3. Toolkits / Resources for teacher and teacher training on inclusive education

Do2Learn : Educational resources - Printable picture cards

DO2LEARN

Expand view

View2Do gives schools and families a powerful tool to create, share, network, and teach, all in an engaging visual medium ideal for students with learning and communication differences. Resource picture cards to teach daily living, social and behavioural skills are available with or without text and cover the topics of: healthcare, self-help, activities, home and school, social, safety, calendar and technology. Black and white picture cards are provided to help you make your own schedules, story strips and talking back cards. They can be printed as full-size coloring pages, in one or two-inch sizes with or without words. Printed and cut out, these can be used singly or grouped together.  

Education in emergencies : including everyone

PINNOCK, Helen
February 2009

Expand view

The guide outlines useful principles for an inclusive emergency education approach, provides advice for strategies and actions at key stages of an emergency, offers advice on dealing with challenges, and highlights what support emergencies' education staff should expect from their organisations. It is aimed at anyone working to provide, manage or support education services in emergencies, and complements the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction

Formation en éducation inclusive avec un accent particulier sur l'accueil d'enfants handicapés en classe ordinaire

HALLET, Virginie
2009

Expand view

Ce manuel de formation en « éducation inclusive, avec un accent particulier sur l’accueil d’enfants handicapés en classe ordinaire » veut contribuer à la réalisation des objectifs de l'Éducation Pour Tous et ainsi assurer à tous les enfants l'égalité des droits et des chances en matière d’éducation, y compris pour les enfants handicapés. L’éducation inclusive désigne un système éducatif qui tient compte des besoins particuliers en matière d'enseignement et d'apprentissage de tous les enfants et jeunes gens en situation de marginalisation et de vulnérabilité : enfants des rues, filles, groupes d'enfants appartenant à des minorités ethniques, enfants issus de familles démunies financièrement, enfants nomades, enfants handicapés, etc. L’éducation inclusive se rapporte à l’ensemble des mesures qu’une école doit prendre pour être accessible à tous ces enfants. Le présent manuel de formation en éducation inclusive met l’accent sur la scolarisation des enfants handicapés. Toutefois, l’ensemble des stratégies proposées va inévitablement promouvoir les opportunités en matière d’éducation pour de nombreux autres groupes d’enfants exclus des systèmes éducatifs. Il constitue une introduction au concept d’éducation inclusive que des formations spécifiques sur la déficience mentale, le Braille et la langue des signes viendront compléter. Si les publications en langue anglaise sur l’éducation inclusive sont abondantes, ce n’est pas le cas dans le monde francophone. Nous espérons donc que le présent document viendra combler ce manque. 

Helping children who are blind : family and community support for children with vision problems|Ayudar a los niños ciegos : apoyo familiar y comunitario para niños con problemas de la vista

NIEMANN, Sandy,
JACOB, Namita
2000

Expand view

Children develop faster in the first five years of life than any other time, and children who are blind need extra help so they can learn how to use their other senses to explore, learn and interact with the world. The simple activities in this book can help families, health workers, and individuals to support children with vision impairment to develop their capabilities. Topics include: assessing how much a child can see; preventing blindness; helping a child move around safely; activities of daily living; preparing for childcare or school; and supporting the parents of blind children. The book is written in an easy-to-read style with illustrations and examples from southern countries

Helping children who are deaf : family and community support for children who do not hear well

NIEMANN, Sandy,
GREENSTEIN, Devorah,
DAVID, Darlena
2004

Expand view

This book was written primarily for parents and other caregivers of young children. It provides a wealth of well-illustrated practical information. The book gives a thorough overview of the different ways to communicate with hearing impaired children. It is written in an easy-to-read style with lots of illustrations and examples from Southern countries.

Inclusive education training in Cambodia : in-service teacher training on disability and special needs issues for primary school teachers

THOMAS, P,
VICHETRA, K
July 2003

Expand view

These materials are an in-service teaching training course for mainstream primary school teachers. They cover types of disability, disabled children's rights and advice on how to include disabled children in the classroom. This course is based on the UNESCO ‘Children with Special Needs Teacher Education Resource Pack’, and materials developed by the Spastic’s Society of Tamil Nadu in India, Voluntary Service Overseas and Kampuchean Action for Primary Education, which have been simplified and adapted. While prepared for use in Cambodia, this resource offers useful, easy to adapt materials to other contexts

INEE pocket guide to supporting learners with disabilities

LEWIS, Ingrid,
LITTLE, Duncan,
PINNOCK, Helen
2010

Expand view

This guide offers practical ideas for including children and young people with disabilities in education during or after an emergency. It addresses current barriers to inclusive education. Specific sections cover curriculum content , tests and learning assessments. This guide will assist anyone working with teachers or facilitators in an emergency, whether as part of the formal education system or a non-governmental programme

Module 15 : inclusive education in emergencies

THE INTER-AGENCY NETWORK FOR EDUCATION IN EMERGENCIES (INEE),
IASC EDUCATION CLUSTER
2012

Expand view

This module outlines 90 minutes of training activities and materials relating to inclusive education in emergency contexts. It provides the basic principles underpinning inclusive education, barriers to inclusion, and how they can be identified and addressed in emergencies. It also encourages participants to begin thinking about how to apply suggested good practices for inclusive education in emergencies, such as those outlined in "INEE Pocket Guide to Supporting Learners with Disabilities", and "Education in Emergencies: Including Everyone." This module is useful for anyone interested in inclusive education in emergency contexts
Note: Power point slides accompany this training module

Special educational needs teaching resources

TES Global

Expand view

Strategies, advice and ideas to support inclusive lessons for students with special educational needs. Resources and ideas to support teaching and learning written by teachers. Topics include: attention deficit/and hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD); cognitive impairment; Down's Syndrome; gifted and talented; hearing impairment; independent living; individual planning; mental health; organisation; physical aids; sensory impairment; social skills; special needs behaviour management; specific learning difficulty; speach and language; and visual impairment. 

Special needs in the classroom : a teacher education guide

AINSCOW, Mel
2004

Expand view

An updated version of UNESCO's training pack developed in the early 1990s for teachers learning about inclusion. It has been used in over 50 countries and has been adapted to different countries' contexts. This guide is a source of ideas for educators wishing to improve teachers’ skills in dealing with pupil diversity in mainstream schools. It offers advice on teacher education methods, including accounts of initiatives already undertaken in various parts of the world. The book emphasises the importance of teacher development, both pre-service and in-service, and demonstrates how pupil diversity in mainstream schools can be a positive influence on the life of the school

Teachers can help everyone learn

THE INTER-AGENCY NETWORK FOR EDUCATION IN EMERGENCIES (INEE)

Expand view

This poster highlights the role of teachers in supporting learners with disabilities. It is useful for anyone interested in inclusive education teachers
Note: This poster can be used as a promotional tool for the INEE Pocket Guide to Supporting Learners with Disabilities

2. Policy - Educational planning - Advocacy

Costing equity: The case for disability-responsive education financing

MYERS, Juliette
October 2016

Expand view

This report contributes to the global discourse on education finance by providing a disability perspective on donor and government investment into inclusive education. The report looks at the benefits of financing disability - inclusive education, the current state of education financing with regard to inclusion, and what needs to change in order for education financing to effectively support the realisation of Sustainable Development Goal 4 and Article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD). Representatives of nine leading bilateral and multilateral education donors were surveyed on their agencies’ efforts towards disability inclusive education: DFAT (Australia), DFID (UK), European Union, GIZ (Germany), Global Partnership for Education, Norad (Norway), UNICEF, USAID (USA), and World Bank

Education for all? This is still not a reality for most children with disabilities

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
2015

Expand view

This advocacy briefing paper presents key information about the inclusion of children with disabilities in the education system. It highlights key facts, gaps in the provision of an equitable education system, the benefits of inclusive education and legal policy and frameworks. It outlines practical steps can be taken by education actors at different levels and suggests ways to measure progress

 

Advocacy briefing paper

Equity and inclusion for all in education

GRIMES, Peter,
BAGREE, Sunit
2012

Expand view

"This report advocates that DFID dedicate adequate resources to tackling the exclusion of all marginalised groups from education in a strategic manner, in line with Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2 to achieve universal primary education, the Education for All (EFA) goals and international human rights instruments such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Mainly, it focuses on these wider issues of marginalization"

Family action for inclusion in education

ENABLING EDUCATION NETWORK (EENET)
2002

Expand view

This publication contains stories of family-based advocacy organisations which have helped to transform education systems in southern Africa, South Asia, Europe and Australia. Quotes from family and community members provide valuable insights into the activities, thoughts and feelings of parents involved in fighting for the inclusion of their disabled children. The guide is especially useful for family and community members who may feel isolated and want to form a support group or advocacy organisation, and also for teachers, teacher educators and policy-makers

Implementing inclusive education : a commonwealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities

RIESER, R
2008

Expand view

This guide presents "a picture of the future is constructed by critically examining programmes geared towards inclusive education across the Commonwealth and beyond. Article 24 of the UNCRPD requires the development of an inclusive education system at all levels, where children and students with disabilities can be part of their local school alongside their non-disabled peers, with the right support and accommodation to develop academically and socially. It has been necessary to revise and update this publication as more countries have since signed and ratified the Convention. Inclusion of children and students with disabilities is an issue of values and morality. We should engage in restructuring our education systems to make this a reality, as everyone benefits and our societies are stronger and more democratic as a result"

 

Note: Two DVDs attached to the cover of the book hard copies with four hours of film extracts of implementing inclusive education

Inclusive education advocacy

KAPLAN, Ian,
LEWIS, Ingrid,
PINNOCK, Helen
Eds
2015

Expand view

This newsletter features selected inclusive education case studies around the world from Armenia to Indonesia. The case studies highlight how these initiatives have worked and how advocates might be able to use the practical examples in their work to fill the information gaps and further inclusion in education settings

Enabling education review, special issue

Making schools inclusive : how change can happen|Save the Children's experience

PINNOCK, Helen,
LEWIS, Ingrid
2008

Expand view

This report looks at how non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can help school systems in developing countries become more inclusive. It shares experience of developing tools and approaches that have improved education for the most excluded children in society. Taking examples from 13 countries around the world it describes case study programmes that: target specific groups of vulnerable children; build inclusive school communities; promote change throughout an education system; and address financial barriers to inclusive education. This report will be of interest to policy-makers, managers and advisers in government, donors and NGOs, and to education students

Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education

UNESCO
2009

Expand view

Inclusive education is a process that involves the transformation of schools and other centres of learning to cater for all children – including boys and girls, students from ethnic and linguistic minorities, rural populations, those affected by HIV and AIDS, and those with disabilities and diffi culties in learning and to provide learning opportunities for all youth and adults as well. Its aim is to eliminate exclusion that is a consequence of negative attitudes and a lack of response to diversity in race, economic status, social class, ethnicity, language, religion, gender, sexual orientation and ability. Education takes place in many contexts, both formal and non-formal, and within families and the wider community. Consequently, inclusive education is not a marginal issue but is central to the achievement of high quality education for all learners and the development of more inclusive societies. Inclusive education is essential to achieve social equity and is a constituent element of lifelong learning.

These guidelines were discussed in a side event at the International Conference on Education in Geneva, Nov 2008 and recommendations from that meeting have been built into this fi nal version. We hope that they will serve as a resource for policymakers, teachers and learners, community leaders and members of civil society in their efforts to promote more effective strategies for reaching the EFA goals.

Promoting inclusive teacher education : advocacy guides

KAPLAN, Ian,
LEWIS, Ingrid
March 2013

Expand view

“This publication set is a series of five guides designed for anyone who wants to do advocacy to bring about improvements in pre-service teacher education towards more inclusive education. They discuss challenges and barriers to inclusive education in different areas of teacher education and outline ideas for advocates to consider and adapt according to their specific contexts for effective advocacy towards more inclusive practices.” The five guides promote inclusive teacher education outlined in introduction, policy, curriculum, materials and methodology booklets

Teachers for all : inclusive teaching for children with disabilities

LEWIS, Ingrid,
BAGREE, Sunit
July 2013

Expand view

This paper provides detail about the context and scale of the challenges of the global shortage of inclusive teachers for children with disabilities. It then outlines five broad issues that need addressing if we are to prepare, recruit and support enough teachers, with appropriate skills, to educate every child, including those with disabilities

Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities : a guideline

CALDERBANK, Daniel
Ed
2009

Expand view

"The Manual begins by identifying the problem and setting out the rationale for the focus on the education of children with disabilities. This is followed by a detailed analysis of eight aspects of the education system and the ways in which it must change to allow the full inclusion of children with disabilities. Each aspect has a critical role to play in transforming the education system...The final section summarizes the way forward, with an emphasis on a rights-based approach to providing education of good quality for children with disabilities in the region"

4. Website - database

Enabling education network (EENET)

EENET

Expand view

This extensive website focusing on inclusive education is regularly updated, primarily with publications written by people working and living in the South. The website’s resources database covers a wide range of themes including: action research and image-based methodologies, early childhood, emergencies, deafness, gender, parents, policy, teacher education, among others. The website also contains EENET’s newsletters, plus event and job vacancy announcements.
The website is also available from EENET as a CD-ROM

HEART Topic Guide - Inclusive learning. Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning.

HOWGEGO, Catherine,
MILES, Susie,
MYERS, Juliette
September 2014

Expand view

This HEART Topic Guide brings together evidence on what works in inclusive learning for children aged 3 to 12 years with disabilities and/or difficulties in learning in low and middle income countries, and explores the role of inclusive approaches in contributing to inclusive societies and ultimately inclusive growth. The Topic Guide addresses some of the contested and debated issues around terminology, labelling, and segregated, integrated and inclusive schooling; reviews the limited evidence that exists from low and middle income countries around the outcomes of inclusive learning; and identifies future research directions. A section summarises a selection of available toolkits on inclusive education with a particular focus on guides to classroom practice

Inclusive Education Booklets and Webinars

UNICEF Europe and Central Asia Regional Office
February 2017

Expand view

With the view to promoting Inclusive Education systems, the UNICEF RO for CEE/CIS in collaboration with the Education and Disability Sections at HQ, has developed a cohesive set of products related to Inclusive Education, products that will support the capacity development of UNICEF staff and provide them with a set of materials that can be used in the field. Below you can find a series of webinars and companion booklets, each dedicated to a specific thematic area, under the overall title of A Rights-Based Approach to Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities.

The series is intended to provide practical guidance to UNICEF staff and their partners on the issues of Inclusive Education with a focus on children with disabilities, by exploring specific concerns, policy and implementation issues specific to thematic areas. The webinars provide the audience with the necessary tools and references to guide further study, and determine the capacity development needs of each country. Each webinar and its companion booklet was developed by an expert on a specific thematic area.

Inclusive education video catalogue : using videos effectively

HAUSCHILD, Alexander,
LEWIS, Ingrid
2015

Expand view

This Inclusive education video guide is facilitators who already have some experience of organising and facilitating sessions, but who would like some additional advice on using videos effectively as a training or advocacy tool,  such as those working for NGOs, community workers, and teachers

The Index for Inclusion Network

THE INDEX FOR INCLUSION NETWORK

Expand view

Like inclusion, building this Network is an unending, shared process, so we need your help in sending us your ideas and experiences.

 

The Index for Inclusion Network is a not-for-profit organisation to support the participatory development of education systems, schools, pre-schools, higher education and other community settings according to inclusive values. It links people in more than forty countries who have used, or want to use, the Index for Inclusion book to help them. It also connects people who use similar ideas in order to create alliances with and between them.

 

At the heart of the Index are some thousands of questions structured around specific aspects of a setting. These can lead adults, children and young people to look more deeply at the nature of their settings in order to make sustained improvements.

1. Introduction - general resources

Inclusive education (background paper)

CORPS, Hannah,
CERALLI, Gilles,
BOISSEAU, Sandra
July 2012

Expand view

"This policy paper explains Handicap International’s current work on inclusive education and offers perspectives for the period 2011-2015. The primary aim is to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the topic and sufficient knowledge to undertake concrete, positive actions towards inclusion. This policy paper draws upon Handicap International’s experience in the field of education since 1998 and prior to that, its experience of working with former development partner Action Nord Sud (ANS) 2. It takes into account the outcomes of baseline field assessments, meetings with partners and donors, feedback from educational professionals, decision-makers and policymakers, and importantly, the views of children with disabilities and their families"
PP No 8

Inclusive education : what, why, and how : a handbook for programm implementers

HEIJNEN-MAATHUIS, Els
March 2016

Expand view

This handbook has been developed specifically for Save the Children programme staff, implementing partners, and practitioners supporting education programmes in any context – development, emergency, or protracted crisis. The Inclusive Education Working Group​ (IEWG) recognized that inclusive education begins with the work being done by education staff in the field, and designed this handbook specifically with them in mind. Guidance has also been structured along the project cycle, so that it may be useful to programmes regardless of their current stage of implementation. This handbook is designed to provide guidance through the different attitudes and barriers that could be causing educational exclusion, as well as to identify key strategies to address them. The project steps are situational analysis, programme design, implementation design, implementation and monitoring, and evaluation and lessons learnt. Case studies presented include: community-based EMIS in Tajikistan; designing for gender equality in Sierra Leone; probing questions lead to deeper analysis and improved programmes (in Uganda); education in emergencies (in Syria); school self-evaluation in Lao PDR. Quick reference charts and further resources are offered for each step

Inclusive education : where there are few resources

STUBBS, Sue
September 2008

Expand view

This comprehensive overview of inclusive education in resource-poor settings looks at the basis for and origins of inclusive education. The book explains the concept of inclusive education in depth, suggests how it can be implemented, and looks at specific case studies and contexts. This resource is useful for professionals and organisations interested in inclusive education in developing countries

Right to inclusive education. Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. General comment No. 4 (2016). Article 24

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONERS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (OHCHR)
September 2016

Expand view

"States parties must ensure the realisation of the right of persons with disabilities to education through an inclusive education system at all levels, including pre-schools, primary, secondary and tertiary education, vocational training and lifelong learning, extracurricular and social activities, and for all students, including persons with disabilities, without discrimination and on equal terms with others". "The right to inclusive education encompasses a transformation in culture, policy and practice in all formal and informal educational environments to accommodate the differing requirements and identities of individual students, together with a commitment to remove the barriers that impede that possibility". The difference between exclusion, segregation, integration and inclusion is highlighted. Core features of inclusive education are set out. These general comments take the form of an introduction, normative content, states parties’ obligations, relations with other provisions of the Convention and implementation at national level." 

The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO),
Ministry of Education and Science, Spain
1994

Expand view

The World conference on special needs education: access and quality launched the concept of inclusive education. The Salamanca statement is a major international policy document, outlining the global consensus on the needs for educational reform and the policies and strategies needed to include disabled children in the education system

The state of the world’s children 2013 : children with disabilities

THE UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
May 2013

Expand view

This report examines "the barriers from inaccessible buildings to dismissive attitudes, from invisibility in official statistics to vicious discrimination - that deprive children with disabilities of their rights and keep them from participating fully in society. The report also lays out some of the key elements of inclusive societies that respect and protect the rights of all children, regardless of disability, and progress in helping all children to flourish and make their contribution to the world"

Towards a disability inclusive education.

SAEBONES, Ann-Marit,
BERMAN BIELER Rosangela,
BABOO Nafisa,
BANHAM Louise ,
SINGA Nidhi,
HOWGEGO Catherine ,
VUYISWA MACCLAIN-NHLAP Charlotte ,
RI Trine Cecilie
et al
January 2016

Expand view

Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development July 7th, 2015. This paper covers the four topics of the Oslo Summit: investment in education, quality of learning, education in emergencies and girls’ education. The inclusion of children with disabilities is a moral issue as well as an economic and social issue: the costs of exclusion are significant for both for the individual and for society. Disability inclusion should be mainstreamed in all policies and plans. Accessibility standards should be implemented and supported by international development cooperation. Currently, 1/3 of the 58 million out of school children are children with disabilities. Planning and budgeting by national governments and development partners needs to include children with disabilities. There is an immediate need for inclusive reporting and monitoring, for applying disability specific education indicators as well as a need for systematic collection of disaggregated data on disability, age and gender. Keys to achieving quality disability inclusive education include: requiring minimum standards of accessibility for all schools, including in emergency settings; investment in teacher training; ensuring that learning materials/resources are available in accessible formats and are easily adaptable; investment in assistive technology and devices; ensuring participation of Disabled People’s Organisations in education planning and monitoring.

0. Inclusive education at a glance (selection of posters)

Practical recommandation to implement an ‘inclusive’ classroom

Dave Mactaggart

Expand view

This drawing illustrates an inclusive (modern and well equipped) classroom environment. Here are some of the recommendations illustrated: 

 • Group seating arrangement to promote group working, peer to peer support and buddy systems.

• Use visual supports eg, timetable in pictures.

• Accessible and child friend classroom: ramps, low reach blackboards, large window to let in light, easy maneuverability, accessible teaching and learning materials.

• Interactive teaching methods, supported by a specialist itinerant teacher (eg sign language or braille experts).

• Resource room for small group teaching.

Quality inclusive education at the heart of the SDGs

Julia McGeown,
Marion Steff,
Andrew Balchin,
Majken Disch
February 2017

Expand view

These two posters have been designed to showcase how the Sustainable Development Goals ( SDGs)  and Inclusive education are linked, using visual diagrams with photographic examples.  The first of these posters details the importance of inclusive quality education, particularly for children with disabilities , in all of the 17 SDGs. The second one focuses on goal 4 and gives concrete actions to be taken  to implement the different targets,  with a special focus on  student with disabilities.