Mainstreaming disability in development

Thanks largely to advocacy by disabled people, the concept of ‘mainstreaming’ has entered the development debate and development programmes have started to contain a disability component. Many development workers now talk of a ‘twin-track’ approach combining inclusive and special services for disabled people, but debates on the subject still continue.

For inclusive development to take place, there needs to be awareness and understanding about disability issues among development workers, and a policy framework needs to be in place. This key list contains manuals for training and awareness-raising on inclusive approaches, as well as policy documents. It also contains resources documenting development programmes’ experiences of inclusion.

This key list has been updated in partnership with the Mainstreaming Disability in Development Co-operation Project . This is an International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) project financed by the European Commission to break the cycle of poverty and disability in developing countries. The overall objective of this project is to promote transnationally a coherent and coordinated approach to mainstream disability in development co-operation policies of 25 European Union Member States, the European Institutions, and European NGOs working in the fields of development cooperation and humanitarian aid.

We welcome your suggestions: please send comments or suggested additions to sourceassistant@hi-uk.org

Make Development Inclusive

Selected resources

Introductory resources

Best practices for including persons with disabilities in all aspects of development efforts

FORGACS, R. T
November 2011

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"The present document has been prepared in response to the request in paragraph 15(b) of General Assembly resolution 65/186, in which the Secretary-General was asked to 'provide information on best practices at international, regional, sub regional and national levels for including persons with disabilities in all aspects of development efforts'...The document is divided into four main sections. Following this brief introduction, section II will focus on the initial criteria for the assessment of best practices. Section III presents a number of recommendations, suggesting also how the United Nations can facilitate the process of mainstreaming disability and persons with disabilities in development and highlighting the interlinks between the mainstreaming of disability and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); and section IV contains 26 case studies from across the globe"

Cross-cutting disability research programme

THE LEONARD CHESHIRE DISABILITY AND INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

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This website features a cross-cutting research programme in disability and development carried out collaboratively by LCD Inclusive Development Centre and four DFID-funded Research Programme Consortium (RPC) partners. The applied research aims to generate evidence to support full participation of disabled people within the broader framework of inclusive development. The programme focuses upon the following four areas of disability and development research: Access to Water and Sanitation in Uganda and Zambia; Disability and Urban Agriculture in Kenya; Maternal Child Health for Women with Disabilities in Nepal; and Mental Disability, Stigma and Multidimensional Poverty in India. The website providesdetailed information about the four research areas and the research partners

Dialogues on sustainable development : a disability-inclusive perspective

KEOGH Mary
2015

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“This publication, with contributions from civil society, UN agencies and EU institutions as well as disability and development organisations…highlights the many commonalities between disability-inclusive development and a range of overarching development themes. It is structured around the three basic elements of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental sustainability – and discusses a range of sub topics relevant to these areas” 

 

Note: easy-to-read version is provided as a related resource link

Disability, poverty and development

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
2000

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This is a major policy document from DFID, the British government's overseas aid department. It assesses the significance of disability as a key development issue, and its importance in relation to poverty, human rights and the achievement of internationally agreed development targets. It also sets out ways in which development cooperation, including DFID's own work, can help incorporate the rights and needs of disabled people into the mainstream of poverty reduction work and the achievement of human rights. It is useful for disability policy makers, NGOs and disabled people working in advocacy and development

FAO working in support of persons with disabilities

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Ed
August 2006

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The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the key linkages between poverty, disability, nutrition and agricultural production. The paper also reports on some of the FAO's work on disability and disability rights and highlights 5 FAO projects / pilot models - ranging from mushroom production to blacksmithing - that target rural people living with disabilities. It would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development policy and practice

International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC)

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM (IDDC)

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IDDC aims to promote the rights of disabled people more effectively and efficiently through collaboration and sharing information. The website contains details of and links to disability publications on a number of disability and development-related topics. Click on "disability and development topics" for links to documents on donor policy and practice, mainstreaming disability and development, and key development issues including HIV/AIDS

Mainstreaming disability in the development agenda

UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
November 2007

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This paper considers the background, practicalities, and resources related to mainstreaming disability in the development agenda, in the context of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It highlights the experiences and lessons learned from mainstreaming gender, HIV and AIDS and disability in development in different countries around the world. It would be a useful resource for people interested in mainstreaming disability in the development agenda using the CRPD

Mainstreaming disability in the development agenda : towards 2015 and beyond|Report of the Secretary-General

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
November 2012

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"The report presents selected examples of advances made at the international, regional and national levels in mainstreaming disability in evolving policy frameworks for inclusive development. The report concludes that, in order to advance such policy frameworks further, follow-up strategies must be introduced at all levels and suggests elements for inclusion in such strategies. The report provides specific recommendations on action at the national, regional and global level to promote the effective implementation of the outcome of the High-level Meeting, specifying actions for Member States, the United Nations system, civil society and all other stakeholders"
E/CN.5/2013/9

Understanding community approaches to handicap in development (CAHD)

KREFTING, Douglas
March 2001

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This document, part of the Handicap and Development Collection, introduces an expanded concept of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) called CAHD (community approaches to handicap in development). It is aimed at CBR planners, policy-makers and managers. CAHD aims to develop two-way relationships within communities to change attitudes so that community practices will include disabled persons and provide them with services and assistance

Water and sanitation for disabled people and other vulnerable groups : designing services to improve accessibility

JONES, Hazel,
REED, Bob
2005

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This book is aimed at water and sanitation planners and service providers as well as organisations of and for disabled people. It aims to promote the equitable access to water and sanitation facilities for disabled people. The main focus of the book is the development of facilities for families in rural and peri-urban areas of low- and middle-income countries, but many of the approaches and solutions may also be applied in institutional settings, such as schools and hospitals and in emergency situations. The contents include a rationale for improving accessibility; guidance on inter-sectoral communication and collaboration; guidance on making service delivery approaches inclusive; simple low-cost technical solutions for inclusive design; developing strategies for implementation; and case studies illustrating solutions and their benefits to disabled people.

World Institute on Disability (WID)

WORLD INSTITUTE ON DISABILITY (WID)

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This US-based non-profit research, public policy and advocacy centre promotes the inclusion of people with disabilities. Its website links to a number of organisations that are divided by subject area and includes publications.

Policy and guidelines

A guidance paper for an inclusive local development policy

AXELSSON, Charlotte
2009

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This guidance paper aims to provide concrete directions for mainstreaming disability in local development. The paper has three main sections: providing background information on mainstreaming disability in local development, tools for action at local level and further support material. It highlights concrete examples from worldwide projects and a set of methodological tools for making a participatory local assessment or drawing up a local disability action plan. This paper is useful for organisations, governments and professionals interested in initiatives to mainstream disability in local development

Beyond charity : a donor's guide to inclusion

WAPLING, Lorraine,
DOWNIE, Bruce
2012

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This easy-to-read guide supports donors to address disability from a human rights perspective, in particular by supporting disabled persons organizations (DPOs). "This guide is divided into four main parts. Part I provides basic information on the background to the CRPD and its general principles to help donors place the CRPD in the context of their own strategies. Part II provides examples of practical actions donors can implement that will improve the way funding is promoted and managed so it becomes increasingly inclusive. Part III offers guidance for how donors can engage more directly with representative organizations of persons with disabilities. Finally, Part IV provides examples of disability organizations and links to further information about disability inclusive funding"

Children and adults with disabilities

Swedish Agency for International Development Cooperation (SIDA)
Ed
December 2005

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This position paper concerns the processes for mainstreaming disability in development cooperation. Specifically, it is concerned with the ways in which SIDA can ensure that disabled people are active participants in development work and decision-making processes. The paper includes strategic areas for including persons with disabilities in SIDA's policies and programmes (on education, HIV and AIDS, poverty reduction, etc) along with a range of useful resources on global disability rights and websites on disability issues. This paper would be useful to anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development cooperation, and in particular, to policy-makers, NGOs, and disabled people's organisations

Creating an inclusive society : mainstreaming disability based on the social economy example

European Standing Conference of Co-operatives, Mutual Societies, Associations and Foundations (CEP-CMAF)
Ed
2007

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This guide, written in cooperation with the European Disability Forum (EDF), is principally concerned with the processes for mainstreaming disability into organisational policy and practice. Written in an accessible, easy-to-use format, the guide aims to demonstrate examples of good organisational practice, specifically with regard to developing Social Economy enterprises and local co-operatives. It is aimed at all types of organisations which have an interest in improving access and inclusion for people with disabilities

Disability and development : a contribution to promoting the interests of persons with disabilities in German development cooperation

FISCHER, Anja,
FRANKE, Katja,
ROMPEL, Matthias
Eds
November 2006

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This policy paper was produced by the organization GTZ on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Written in accessible, plain language, the paper aims to demonstrate the importance of mainstreaming the interests of people with disabilities into national poverty reduction strategies and development frameworks. The paper highlights the important role of international organisations and bilateral donors. It also makes clear the German Development Cooperation's (DC) policy to promote a rights-based approach to inclusive development and the social model of disability. The paper concludes with examples of German DC project activities and a review of the situation for disabled people in Germany. This paper would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development cooperation, in particular, disability policy-makers, NGOs, and disabled people working in advocacy and development

Disability framework : leaving no one behind

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
December 2014

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This framework is intended to consolidate and explain the changes that are happening within DFID to strengthen disability inclusion in their policies and programmes, and outline the actions DFID will take over the next 12 months.  It is aimed at DFID staff

Disability, development and inclusion in international development cooperation : analysis of disability-related policies and research at selected multilateral and bilateral institutions

INCLUSION INTERNATIONAL
2001

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This document is a summary of literature reviews of disability and development policies. It aims to begin a process of indexing formal and informal disability and development policies (whether formal or informal), to consolidate a body of knowledge and analysis by various stakeholders about the impact of those policies, and to provide an analysis of the current trends in disability and development policy as well as development agency capacity to institute inclusive policy

EDF policy paper : development cooperation and disability

EUROPEAN DISABILITY FORUM (EDF)
2003

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This policy paper advocates that disability and development cooperation should be an integral part of general mainstream development policy in the European Union as a whole and in the policy of the EU's individual member states. It argues that poverty reduction, universal primary education, employment and economic targets will never be met unless disabled people are included. It is useful for lobbyists and policy-makers

Guidance note on disability and development for EU delegations and services

EC DIRECTORATE GENERAL (DG) FOR DEVELOPMENT
March 2003

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This staff briefing note draws on policy documents from leading European disability organisations to give guidance to EU missions around the world. It uses a social model of disability and focuses on poverty reduction. It advocates a twin-track approach, consisting of both specific projects for disabled people and mainstreaming into all relevant development programmes

Guidelines for Italian cooperation on themes concerning handicaps

ITALIAN MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS
2003

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With these guidelines, the Italian Cooperation intends to provide a reference framework for the development cooperation initiatives on the subject of disabled people in the Countries that receive official development assistance (ODA) from Italy. They outline a trend model that indicates the approaches, methodologies and purposes the Italian Cooperation identifies with.
The guidelines are structured along three different lines that correspond to priority areas of action: educational integration, employment integration, and prevention and rehabilitation

Including the rights of persons with disabilities in UN programming at country level : a guidance note for United Nations country teams and implementing partners

INTER-AGENCY SUPPORT GROUP ON THE CONVENTION FOR THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
2011

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"This guidance note outlines four main areas for mainstreaming the rights of persons with disabilities: UN cooperation at country level; country analysis (preceding UNDAF development); strategic planning (development of the UNDAF and its results matrix) and monitoring and evaluation (M&E)....By mainstreaming disability rights in their work at country level, UNCTs can respond to the request of persons with disabilities themselves, who have been calling for a new approach to disability, grounded on the conviction that all persons should be equally valued"

Mainstreaming disability in the new development paradigm : evaluation of Norwegian support to promote the rights of persons with disabilities

INGDAL, Nora,
NILSSON, Annika
2012

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"This report is the result of an external and independent evaluation of the Norwe¬gian Support to Promote the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the last 11 years. The intention of the evaluation is to analyse the results of targeted and mainstreamed initiatives towards achieving the rights of persons with disabilities...The methodology included field visits in the four case countries: Malawi, Nepal, the Palestinian territory and Uganda to obtain a deeper understanding of how the rights of persons with disabilities have been promoted, and estimate the possible contributions of the Norwegian support. Afghanistan was included as a desk study"
Note: The report is available electronically and in printed version. A braille copy can be downloaded from the web. The four country reports, written in English, are available electronically. The summaries of the country studies are made available electronically, with translations to the relevant local languages Nepali, Arabic and Chewa. In addition an easy-read version in English and Norwegian of the main report is available electronically

Making inclusion operational : legal and institutional resources for World Bank staff on the inclusion of disability issues in investment projects

GUERNSEY, Katherine,
NICOLI, Marco,
NINIO, Alberto
September 2006

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This paper aims to support World Bank staff to mainstream disability issues in their work. The intention is to promote the inclusion of disabled people in all aspects of a project cycle, from design, to implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In particular, the paper provides a practical checklist to address specific actions that promote inclusive development. The paper would be a useful tool for any practitioners working in the field of development

Managing change : mainstreaming disability into the development process

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR WESTERN ASIA (ESCWA)
June 2012

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This report addresses the situation of persons with disability in development in Western Asia. It highlights the challenges faced by persons with disabilities in the region including gender, accessibility and discrimination. It provides recommendations to promote the rights and inclusion of persons in the region including through strengthening the knowledge and policy infrastructure, data collection and the rights-based approach to development

Sightsavers empowerment and inclusion : strategic framework 2015

SIGHTSAVERS
September 2015

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This document is the Sightsavers’ inclusion strategic framework 2015. It explains their rights-based approach of mainstreaming disability inclusion throughout their health programmes and their operations regarding education, organisational diversity and equal rights. It also shows their strategy focusing on the empowerment of people with disabilities in electoral process and in the financial sector

Situation of disabled people in the enlarged European Union : the European Action Plan 2006-2007

Commission of the European Communities
November 2005

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This action plan follows the European Union Disability Strategy of 2005. It relates specifically to mainstreaming disability in policy formulation and is intended to ensure a coherent follow-up to the European Year of Disabled People. The paper recognises that disability policy is most effectively dealt with at national level but aims to provide a dynamic framework to develop a broader EU Disability Strategy. It includes important information and data on the employment situation of people with disabilities, as well as laying down guidelines for developing accessible goods, services and inclusive policies. This paper would be useful to anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development cooperation, in particular policy-makers, NGOs and disabled people's organisations

Social analysis and disability : a guidance note : incorporating disability-inclusive development into Bank-supported projects

World Bank
Ed
March 2007

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The Social Development department of the World Bank has produced this easy-to-use report as a part of a series of guidance notes on social analysis. It offers practical advice on mainstreaming disability-inclusive development into World Bank projects. The report provides a checklist for developing inclusive disability policies and for including people with disabilities in each aspect of the development project cycle. The report does not aim to promote separate disability projects but rather to ensure that people with disabilities are included in all projects. The report would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in international development policy and practice

The comprehensive national disability policy in Afghanistan : submitted to Minister of Martyrs and Disabled Kabul

MINISTRY OF MARTYRS AND DISABLED
October 2003

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In August 2003 the government of Afghanistan gathered a group of experts, government officials, and national and international NGOs to develop a disability policy for Afghanistan. The result reflects the complex situation of Afghanistan which is devastated by civil war, extreme religious movements, drug production and poverty. This policy is the attempt to mainstream disability into all aspects of Afghan society and life. The document briefly describes the situation in Afghanistan, sets it into the national and international context and outlines the major policy issues. It will be of interest to NGOs and researchers.

The inclusion of disability in Norwegian development co-operation : planning and monitoring for the inclusion of disability issues in mainstream development activities

NORWEGIAN AGENCY FOR DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION (NORAD)
January 2002

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This paper aims to follow up policy obligations by providing basic information for donors, including some references on selected disability issues, and guidelines on planning for and monitoring the inclusion of disability issues in future development work. The intention is to supplement existing materials by highlighting key issues, and illustrating how these can be managed within mainstream programme development

Manuals

Access for all : helping to make participatory processes accessible for everyone

SAVE THE CHILDREN
2000

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This manual draws attention to different aspects of the accessibility of meetings, written documents, visual communications, presentations, environment and accommodation. It gives an overview of the major issues around accessibility for disabled people and presents practical adaptations to enable disabled people to be included in participatory activities

Addressing attitudes to disability : a collection of resource materials

JONES, Hazel
1998

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This resource pack presents participatory activities and exercises for use in workshops for officials, teachers, volunteers and parents involved in caring for disabled people. The exercises are organised into sections on thinking about disabled people, participating in daily life, and additional activites. The resource pack includes tips for using the materials and for organising a workshop. It is designed for trainers with participatory facilitation skills and includes handouts that can be photocopied

Count me in - Include people with disabilities in development projects | A practical guide for organisations in the North and South

BRUIJN, Paulien
et al
November 2012

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"People with disabilities are often amongst the poorest in the developing world. Yet they are usually left out of development projects. This is not because of ill-will. Development organisations simply do not know how to include them. This book offers suggestions based on the experience of organisations that participated in a two-year learning programme. It is full of useful tips on how to launch inclusive programmes and projects, how to prepare your staff for working with people with disabilities and how to adapt your organisational processes and systems"

Available in Braille, high resolution, low resolution and word formats.
Available in Portuguese: "Inclusão de pessoas com deficiência nos projectos de desenvolvimento: Um guia prático para organizações do Norte e do Sul".
Available in French: "Tiens compte de moi - L'inclusion de personnes en situation de handicap dans les projets de développement"
Available in Spanish: "Cuenta conmigo - Incluir a las personas con discapacidad en los proyectos de desarrollo"

Disability-inclusive development toolkit

AL JU’BEH, Kathy
January 2015

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This toolkit is designed as a resource for CBM that can be used in a variety of ways: to support staff induction, team meetings, refresher days and training workshops. It can also be used as a tool for personal reflection and self-study. Tips for those intending to use it as a training resource are shaded differently.

 

The toolkit is presented in four main chapters targeting different audiences. Chapter 1: DID an introduction; Chapter 2: DID for managers; Chapter 3: DID for programme staff; Chapter 4: Inclusive training and facilitation. The content of the four chapters can be combined and adapted as needed. The materials can be used flexibly and are not intended to be prescriptive. They are primarily intended for use by CBM staff and highlight CBM guidelines and reference documents. They are intended to give CBM staff and partners more confidence in applying disability inclusion in their work

and speaking with one voice.

 

Each chapter includes links to signpost other reliable resources/ websites and portals where people can find further relevant information, both external links for all users and internal links for CBM employees only. A glossary of key terms is also presented at the end in alphabetical order to aid understanding and clarity on key terms used throughout the DID toolkit

Inclusion made easy : a quick program guide to disability and development

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
2012

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This brief, practical guide has been prepared for program managers and program officers of international development organisations to ensure programs are disability-inclusive. It offers basic inclusion principles, practical tips and case study examples and is divided into two parts. Part A focuses on disability-inclusive development principles and Part B focuses on disability inclusion across a range of development sectors or program areas
Note: This guide is available in pdf and word formats

Inclusive project cycle management training

CHRISTOFFEL BLINDENMISSION (CBM)
December 2012

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"Inclusive Project Cycle Management (IPCM) training package has been developed for CBM staff and Partner Organisations worldwide

 

The Trainers’ Manual will guide CBM trainers. It contains the curriculum for the course and training resources for trainers to help them deliver the course. The training will be successful if the trainers make sufficient planning time to prepare in advance and to respond to partners training needs. Different contexts and different partners may require different emphasis on areas that may be a challenge. This training material is not suggested as a prescriptive manual but as a suggested framework that can be added to and deepened as required. This means adapting the course to the local context and training needs and competencies of partners. In particular, it would be good to supplement or replace case studies included in the course with local case studies (refer Handout 8) and to have participants draw on their own examples

 

In addition to the Trainers’ Manual, there are also Participant Folders. There is a small amount of information to be included in the folders at the beginning. Participants will receive extra course materials during the three days to complete their folders (Handouts)


The objective of the training is to promote inclusion in CBM’s work and the work of CBM’s partners. It focuses on two particular aspects of inclusion – how to ensure people with disabilities and both women and men participate in and benefit from development activities"

Mainstreaming disability and gender in development cooperation

DUTCH COALITION ON DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT
2008

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This practical disability and gender training manual aimed at development cooperation professionals provides "a tool to enable the reader to learn from best practice examples currently applied in specific areas of disability and development work. It also informs the reader on how to reproduce a similar training module in the future under different circumstances, as a way to spread knowledge and to reach out to an increasingly wide audience"

Making inclusion a reality in development organisations : a manual for advisors in disability mainstreaming

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM (IDDC)
Ed
2012

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This manual is specifically meant for trainers and advisors in disability mainstreaming that are involved in facilitating the organisational change process for inclusive development. This manual will helps readers to: acquire a basic overview of disability rights and statistics; create a personal vision on inclusive development; deliver the message of inclusive development to a sceptical audience; design strategies for disability mainstreaming in development organisations; become familiar with the wide array of existing tools on disability inclusion; and assess their own training and facilitation skill. The reader can select those chapters that are of most interest. Each chapter starts with the key objectives of that particular chapter, then discusses the content, poses some questions for discussion and finalises with references for further reading

Travelling together

COE, Sue,
WAPLING, Lorraine
2010

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This manual outlines a one day course for programming staff to increase the inclusion of disabled people in development programmes. Following a course introduction and timetable, the manual contains three main sections: the first section outlines practical training materials for course activities; the second section provides stories from the course; the third section contains resources and information on disability inclusion. This resource is useful for people interested in disability inclusion in development programmes
Large print, Braille and audio versions are available upon request from the publisher