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Chap. 2: Intervention Cost-Effectiveness: Overview of Main Messages

DT, Jamison,
JG, Breman,
AR, Measham
et al
September 2016

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"Although efficient spending on health has always been a desirable goal, it is particularly critical in the face of recent threats, such as HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant bacteria, as well as the problems presented by increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), that threaten to roll back the significant health gains achieved in the past two decades. This book is an opportunity to assess anew the costs associated with and the health gains attainable from specific interventions and thereby better inform the allocation of new health funding." 

Victim assistance in the context of the use of explosive weapons in populated areas

September 2016

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The international process underway to develop a political declaration on preventing civilian harm from the use of explosive weapons in populated areas is making good progress. Meanwhile, the International Network on Explosive Weapons (INEW) and other national and international organisations are working alongside leading governments to ensure the declaration will be comprehensive and will effectively meet the expectations of those suffering from the consequences of explosive weapons use around the world.

 

Wishing to contribute to the political declaration drafting process, Handicap International, supported by the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade,launched an initiative with a view to developing a shared understanding of the needs and rights of victims of explosive weapons and proposing recommendations on the provisions on victim assistance to be included in this declaration.Survivors, experts and humanitarian aid workers from countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan,Iraq, Jordan, South Sudan, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Palestine, as well as experts from several INEW member organisations, took part in this initiative. Together, they shared their experience of the reality faced by victims of explosive weapons in populated areas, expressed their aspirations for victim assistance provisions in the future political declaration and exchanged ideas by means of an online consultation and a workshop in Sarajevo.

 

This paper draws on these consultations to make the following recommendations, intended to ensure that the needs and rights of victims of explosive weapons will be adequately addressed in the future political declaration
 

Who cares about independence?

SHAKESPEARE Tom
September 2016

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Wheelchair user, Tom Shakespeare, reflects on what it feels like to be dependent on others.

He says care often leaves the recipient in a devalued state.

He calls for society to respond to the challenge of delivering help "without creating domination and infantilisation" and for care to be funded properly.

Producer: Adele Armstrong.

Interactive Accessability Map

HANDiCAP INTERNATIONAL
September 2016

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This interactive map allows you to scroll over each room to discover the accessibility features that benefit a wide variety of users in each location. 

The Paralympic Games and the Promotion of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

UN CHRONICLE
September 2016

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This article explores the effect of the paraolympic games on driving social inclusion and an understanding of disability and disability rights around the world. Highlighting the poor conditions before the Bejing games in 2008, the article explains how perceptions and awareness within society have changed. The article also highlighted the United Kingdom as a leader in the field of disability rights and equality thought protection of those rights. 

Being a refugee in Turkey and western Europe: how it affects mental health and psychosocial wellbeing

JOURNAL OF MENTAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT IN CONFLICT AFFECTED AREAS
September 2016

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"In this personal reflection, the author is a Syrian refugee who describes his experiences as a psychosocial worker in Syria and with refugees in Turkey and Greece. He highlights how women and children lack safety in the camps. The second section discusses how he became a refugee himself. Due to his experiences in Syria, he now finds himself in a difficult situation in the Netherlands, the county where he applied for asylum and has received a permit, but his ‘cry for help’ remains unheard and unrecognised by the (health) workers in the asylum centre."

The political economy of financial inclusion: tailoring donor policy to fit

DEVELOPMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
September 2016

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"Financial inclusion has recently become a globally acclaimed policy objective. This provokes the need to review policy in this sector, particularly in light of the tensions that arise between donor approaches founded on market modernism and governments with more activist leanings. This is done here in the context of efforts to move donor development policy beyond ‘best practice’ institutional blue-prints to those which are ‘good enough’, which seek to understand underlying political economy dynamics in order to find space to engage with governments. In doing so, it is argued that there is scope for ‘working with the grain’ and harnessing the political economy of government policy in order to produce financial inclusion outcomes." 

Learning generation. Investing in education for a changing world.

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON FINANCING GLOBAL EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY
September 2016

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The International Commission on Financing Global Education Opportunity was set up to reinvigorate the case for investing in education and to chart a pathway for increased investment in order to develop the potential of all of the world’s young people. To achieve its goals, the Commission proposes a range of measures to finance education and a set of strategic reforms necessary for ensuring finance delivers real learning results. These actions aim to engage domestic and international partners across governments, the private sector, and civil society. This report summarizes the Commission’s findings and conclusions. It draws upon new research by partners around the world, new expert analysis of the existing evidence base, and wide-reaching global consultations with practitioners, education providers, ministers of finance and education, policymakers, and partners in education. More than 300 partners in 105 countries engaged in this process. The report also draws on the conclusions of dedicated expert panels on technology, health and education, and finance, as well as a youth panel. The Education Commission concludes that it is possible to get all young people into school and learning within a generation – despite the scale of the challenge, we can create a Learning Generation. 

Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus

KINDHAUSER, Mary Kay,
ALLEN Tomas ,
FRANK Veronika,
SANTHANAA Ravi Shankar,
DYE Christopher
September 2016

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The temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are described following an extensive literature search. During this period a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). The paper concludes that the Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities

 

Detecting Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus using systems developed for polio surveillance

KANDEL, Nirmal,
LAMICHHANE Jaya,
TANGERMANN Rudolf ,
RODIEA Guenael
September 2016

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With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of  Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.

Integration of childhood TB into maternal and child health, HIV and nutrition services. A case study from Malawi.

VERKUIJL, Sabine
et al
September 2016

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"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi in order to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Malawi case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The method for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and benchmarks for integrated community case management (iCCM)"

The autism employment gap report

September 2016

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For nearly a decade, the full-time employment rate of autistic adults has stagnated. A survey we carried out in 2007 indicated that just 15% of autistic people were in full-time paid work. Shockingly, in this year’s survey, the figure was just 16%.

 

A similar number are in part-time employment, giving an overall employment rate of 32%. And while full-time work won’t be right for everyone on the autism spectrum, four in 10 of those working part-time feel under-employed. Others feel they are in low-skilled work and employers don’t see their abilities. They see their autism. They see a problem.

 

Meanwhile, employers have told us that they are worried about getting things wrong for autistic employees and that they don’t know where to go for advice. Autistic people are overloaded by too much information at work, and employers don’t have enough.

 

The UK Government has made a very welcome pledge to halve the disability employment gap by the end of this Parliament, meaning that they have to shift the disability employment rate from 47% to 64%. But the autism employment gap is even wider. For the number of autistic people in work to reach 64%, the Government will need to commit to doubling the number of autistic people in employment by 2020.

 

Both Government and employers need to take specific action to make this happen – without it, recent history tells us that autistic people will continue to be left behind

WFD’s position paper on the language rights of deaf children

WORLD FEDERATION OF THE DEAF
September 2016

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Early exposure to sign language and multilingualism, combined with strong family support for sign languages, best prepares deaf children for their future effective participation in society. This position paper covers language acquisition for deaf children, the benefits of multilingualism, multilingual education and interpreting UN CPRD Article 24 in support of sign bilingual education. 

Each section of the paper has International sign videos available.

We're The Superhumans - Rio Paralympics 2016 Trailer

Channel 4 (UK Paralympic broadcaster)
August 2016

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Channel 4 is proud to present the 3-minute trailer for the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. Signed & Subtitled and Audio Described versions are available in the playlist.
The Rio 2016 Paralympic Games will be held from 7-18 September 2016. Download the track at http://wearethesuperhumans.com from Sat 16th July, with all profits going to the British Paralympic Association.

Travelling with a disability - Guideline

CBM INTERNATIONAL OFFICE - HEALTH, SAFETY AND SECURITY UNIT
August 2016

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This guideline was prepared in close cooperation with several CBM travellers with a disability and others who travel together with a person with a disability. Their experiences/testimonies have been collated using a series of guiding questions.

Who is this guideline for? This guideline targets travellers with a disability and personal assistants (PA) of travellers with a disability. In addition, this document is useful for anyone who is travelling together with a person with a disability.

What is the objective of this guideline? The aim of this guideline is to raise awareness and help to better prepare for trips. The guideline also gives first-hand advice and best-practice recommendations from persons with a disability for persons with a disability when they face challenges during their trip.

Hurricane Preparedness Tips For People With Special Needs

Direct Energy ,
Kamellia Zeynali
August 2016

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Preparing for a natural disaster can be exhausting, time-consuming and difficult - especially if you have a disability or special needs. Here are some additional tips to keep in mind during this hurricane season.

To ensure that everyone has the tools necessary to get ready in the event of a hurricane visiting your area, Direct Energy has put together this infographic containing the crucial hurricane preparedness steps those with special needs and disabilities may need to take in order to protect themselves during a storm.

Preventing the Zika virus: Understanding and controlling the Aedes mosquito

LOGAN, James
August 2016

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This free online course begins by considering the science behind the outbreak to try to understand where the Zika virus has come from, its symptoms, and its effect on infected individuals. The biology of the Aedes mosquitoes is explored. A range of methods employed to control the Aedes mosquito are highlighted. There is opportunity to exchange thoughts and ideas through course discussion with those on the front line in South America. Subtitles in Spanish and Portuguese are provided.

Long-term training with a brain-machine interface-based gait protocol induces partial neurological recovery in paraplegic patients.

NICOLELIS, Miguel
et al
August 2016

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"Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) provide a new assistive strategy aimed at restoring mobility in severely paralyzed patients. Yet, no study in animals or in human subjects has indicated that long-term BMI training could induce any type of clinical recovery. Eight chronic (3–13 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegics were subjected to long-term training (12 months) with a multi-stage BMI-based gait neurorehabilitation paradigm aimed at restoring locomotion. This paradigm combined intense immersive virtual reality training, enriched visual-tactile feedback, and walking with two EEG-controlled robotic actuators, including a custom-designed lower limb exoskeleton capable of delivering tactile feedback to subjects. Following 12 months of training with this paradigm, all eight patients experienced neurological improvements in somatic sensation (pain localization, fine/crude touch, and proprioceptive sensing) in multiple dermatomes. Patients also regained voluntary motor control in key muscles below the SCI level, as measured by EMGs, resulting in marked improvement in their walking index. As a result, 50% of these patients were upgraded to an incomplete paraplegia classification. Neurological recovery was paralleled by the reemergence of lower limb motor imagery at cortical level". It is hypothesised that this unprecedented neurological recovery results from both cortical and spinal cord plasticity triggered by long-term BMI usage."

Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 30383 (2016)
doi:10.1038/srep30383

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