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Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus

KINDHAUSER, Mary Kay,
ALLEN Tomas ,
FRANK Veronika,
SANTHANAA Ravi Shankar,
DYE Christopher
September 2016

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The temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are described following an extensive literature search. During this period a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). The paper concludes that the Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities

 

Detecting Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus using systems developed for polio surveillance

KANDEL, Nirmal,
LAMICHHANE Jaya,
TANGERMANN Rudolf ,
RODIEA Guenael
September 2016

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With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of  Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.

Integration of childhood TB into maternal and child health, HIV and nutrition services. A case study from Malawi.

VERKUIJL, Sabine
et al
September 2016

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"Country case studies were conducted in Uganda and Malawi in order to document and analyse experiences and perspectives on childhood TB integration into other programmes at country level and related health system requirements. The aim was to inform the broader thinking about integration of childhood TB services. The Malawi case study identified and described different approaches to integration and unpacked the integration process. The perspective on TB integration of different relevant health actors at national and district level are described. The case study used a health systems approach and focused on the community and primary levels of the health system, paying attention to factors related to children of different ages in a lifecycle approach. The method for the case study included document review, consultations with key health actors at national and district level, a facility visit and a participatory workshop at national level. An analytical framework approach was used to investigate the extent of integration of childhood TB interventions in multiple dimensions. An assessment tool for the case studies was developed, summarising the assessment questions by theme, combining a number of existing tools and frameworks on health care integration in general and childhood TB and benchmarks for integrated community case management (iCCM)"

We're The Superhumans - Rio Paralympics 2016 Trailer

Channel 4 (UK Paralympic broadcaster)
August 2016

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Channel 4 is proud to present the 3-minute trailer for the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. Signed & Subtitled and Audio Described versions are available in the playlist.
The Rio 2016 Paralympic Games will be held from 7-18 September 2016. Download the track at http://wearethesuperhumans.com from Sat 16th July, with all profits going to the British Paralympic Association.

Travelling with a disability - Guideline

CBM INTERNATIONAL OFFICE - HEALTH, SAFETY AND SECURITY UNIT
August 2016

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This guideline was prepared in close cooperation with several CBM travellers with a disability and others who travel together with a person with a disability. Their experiences/testimonies have been collated using a series of guiding questions.

Who is this guideline for? This guideline targets travellers with a disability and personal assistants (PA) of travellers with a disability. In addition, this document is useful for anyone who is travelling together with a person with a disability.

What is the objective of this guideline? The aim of this guideline is to raise awareness and help to better prepare for trips. The guideline also gives first-hand advice and best-practice recommendations from persons with a disability for persons with a disability when they face challenges during their trip.

Hurricane Preparedness Tips For People With Special Needs

Direct Energy ,
Kamellia Zeynali
August 2016

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Preparing for a natural disaster can be exhausting, time-consuming and difficult - especially if you have a disability or special needs. Here are some additional tips to keep in mind during this hurricane season.

To ensure that everyone has the tools necessary to get ready in the event of a hurricane visiting your area, Direct Energy has put together this infographic containing the crucial hurricane preparedness steps those with special needs and disabilities may need to take in order to protect themselves during a storm.

Preventing the Zika virus: Understanding and controlling the Aedes mosquito

LOGAN, James
August 2016

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This free online course begins by considering the science behind the outbreak to try to understand where the Zika virus has come from, its symptoms, and its effect on infected individuals. The biology of the Aedes mosquitoes is explored. A range of methods employed to control the Aedes mosquito are highlighted. There is opportunity to exchange thoughts and ideas through course discussion with those on the front line in South America. Subtitles in Spanish and Portuguese are provided.

Long-term training with a brain-machine interface-based gait protocol induces partial neurological recovery in paraplegic patients.

NICOLELIS, Miguel
et al
August 2016

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"Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) provide a new assistive strategy aimed at restoring mobility in severely paralyzed patients. Yet, no study in animals or in human subjects has indicated that long-term BMI training could induce any type of clinical recovery. Eight chronic (3–13 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegics were subjected to long-term training (12 months) with a multi-stage BMI-based gait neurorehabilitation paradigm aimed at restoring locomotion. This paradigm combined intense immersive virtual reality training, enriched visual-tactile feedback, and walking with two EEG-controlled robotic actuators, including a custom-designed lower limb exoskeleton capable of delivering tactile feedback to subjects. Following 12 months of training with this paradigm, all eight patients experienced neurological improvements in somatic sensation (pain localization, fine/crude touch, and proprioceptive sensing) in multiple dermatomes. Patients also regained voluntary motor control in key muscles below the SCI level, as measured by EMGs, resulting in marked improvement in their walking index. As a result, 50% of these patients were upgraded to an incomplete paraplegia classification. Neurological recovery was paralleled by the reemergence of lower limb motor imagery at cortical level". It is hypothesised that this unprecedented neurological recovery results from both cortical and spinal cord plasticity triggered by long-term BMI usage."

Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 30383 (2016)
doi:10.1038/srep30383

'Brain training' technique restores feeling and movement to paraplegic patients

RADFORD, Tim
August 2016

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It is reported that eight paraplegics – some of them paralysed for more than a decade by severe spinal cord injury – have been able to move their legs and feel sensation, after help from an artificial exoskeleton, sessions using virtual reality (VR) technology and a non-invasive system that links the brain with a computer. "After just 10 months of what the Brazilian medical team “brain training” they have been able to make a conscious decision to move and then get a response from muscles that have not been used for a decade". The work is part of the Walk Again Project.

Participatory and emancipatory approach in disability research. Possible allies for supporting active citizenship, civil rights and actions of social innovation.

TRAINA, Ivan
August 2016

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Participatory and emancipatory approaches in disability research are addressed through three research questions related to: the extent the participatory approach can encourage an active citizenship paradigm for the involvement of disabled people; the extent emancipation through research can contribute to the affirmation of a civil rights model of disability; and the extent it is possible to consider these approaches as tools that can support the design and implementation of socially innovative actions. The paper considers the academic literature and a reviews international documents, assuming a disability perspective

Considering Disability Journal. DOI: 10.17774/CDJ12015.2.2057584

Good practices of accessible urban development - Making urban environment inclusive and fully accessible to ALL

August 2016

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About 6.25 billion people, 15 per cent of them persons with disabilities, are expected to be living in urban centres by 2050. Urbanisation has the potential to be an engineer for achieving sustainable and inclusive development for all. The current lack of environmental accessibility faced by people with disabilities, in particular in many cities in the world, presents a major challenge. As the international community prepares for the Third Global Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III), which will take place in Quito, Ecuador, in October 2016, it is an apt and a strategic opportunity to promote an accessible and inclusive Urban Agenda.

This report is a compendium of promising initiatives and good practices that have emerged in recent yeas successfully promoting accessibility and inclusion of persons with disabilities, their rights, aspiration and contributions in the contexts of urban development. It countains findings and recommendations which were adopted at a UN expert group meeting, that may be helpful in informing the ongoing Habitat III discourses, the development of the New Urban Agenda as well as in furthering accessible and inclusive urban development 

Promoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation: a realist synthesis

MCVEIGH, Joanne,
MACLACHLAN, Malcolm,
GILMORE Brynne,
MACLEAN Chiedza,
EIDE, Arne H.,
MANNAN Hasheem,
GEISER Priscille,
DUTTINE Anthony,
MJI Gubela,
MACAULIFFE Eilish,
SPRUNT Beth,
AMIN Mutamad,
NORMAND Charles
et al
August 2016

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General principles requiring contextual adaptation regarding optimal policy related governance of health related rehabilitation in less resourced settings were developed from a literature review and realistic synthesis. A systematic review of literature published since 2003 was carried out. Multiple reviewers selected articles for inclusion in the realistic synthesis.  A Delphi survey of expert stakeholders refined and triangulated findings from the realist synthesis. Context mechanism outcome pattern configurations (CMOCs) were identified from the literature and then developed into statements for the Delphi survey, whereby 18 expert stakeholders refined these statements to achieve consensus on recommendations for policy related governance of health related rehabilitation. Several broad principles emerged throughout formulation of recommendations: participation of persons with disabilities in policy processes; collection of disaggregated disability statistics; explicit promotion in policies of access to services for all subgroups of persons with disabilities and service-users; robust inter-sectoral coordination; and ‘institutionalising’ programmes.

 

 

Major Groups and Other Stakeholders discussion papers to the HLPF 2016

July 2016

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The present document is a compilation of the written contributions of various major groups and other relevant stakeholders that have autonomously established and maintained effective coordination mechanisms for participation in the high-level political forum on sustainable development, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 67/290, on the theme of the high-level political forum, “Ensuring that no one is left behind”.

 

The document includes the submission to the HLPF Submission by the Stakeholder Group of Persons with Disabilities.

 

Disability inclusive health, safety & security management. A vital part of duty of care.

BURTZLAFF, Philipp,
Van HERWIJNAN, Tom
July 2016

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This briefing paper aims to encourage security managers and policy makers towards implementing disability inclusive safety and security protocols and standards as an integral part of Duty of Care within the humanitarian, development and private sector. Development of SOPs, guidelines and contingency plans, training, briefings, feedback and incident reporting mechanism are outlined. Examples are provided of a visually impaired person in a vehicle at a roadblock and of disability inclusive travel preparations.

Implications for public health research of models and theories of disability: a scoping study and evidence synthesis

BERGHS, M,
ATKIN, K
et al
July 2016

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Public health interventions can improve population health and reduce inequalities. However, we do not know how far these interventions – or the research that informs them – include the experiences of those with disabilities. Our research asked whether or not current research on public health could do better to include the experiences of those with disabilities. We began by looking at what has been written about the experiences of disability. What we learned was then used to explore how well current research on public health interventions captured the experiences of people who have disabilities.

We found that disability can affect anyone, at any age. It can also affect those who are already ill. There is no typical experience. Public health research has been slow to understand this. Disabled people face many different forms of disadvantage and discrimination. This often means that they cannot get the help that they need. It appears that research has not always recognised this and has ignored how people can ‘flourish’ and ‘thrive’ with a disability. Policy, therefore, has not always known how best to support disabled people and has often had no information on which to base decisions.

Following discussions with politically active disabled people and public health professionals, we aimed to provide advice to those involved in research. This included developing a decision aid, called IDEAS (Inclusion, Dignity, Equality, Accessibility and Intersectionality), which aims to help researchers, commissioners and policymakers to make decisions that are more sensitive to the experiences of disabled people. Encouraging researchers and commissioners to take disability more seriously should hopefully improve what we know about the experiences of disability. It should also help society to develop interventions that improve disabled people’s health. This includes asking disabled people about the research that they think is important and involving them in the research process, as well as making resources available to support their participation in research.

Our conclusions point out the importance of recognising a person’s right to respect and dignity, while also understanding the influence of the social conditions in which a person lives on his or her experience of disability.

United Nations Global Sustainable Development Report 2016

Uinted Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)
July 2016

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This report was prepared to inform the discussions at the high-level political forum (HLPF) on sustainable development in 2016. The theme chosen for the HLPF is "ensuring that no one is left behind". The report builds on GSDR2014 and GSDR2015. The approach is of an assessment of assessments, documenting and describing the landscape of information on specific issues or nexuses of issues. Specifically, the report keeps the ‘science-policy interface’ and ‘SDGs as integrated system’ as main threads. Main topics include: ensuring that no one is left behind and the 2030 Agenda; the infrastructure – inequality – resilience nexus; perspectives of scientists on technology and the SDGs; inclusive institutions for sustainable development; and identification of emerging Issues for sustainable development. An annex addresses persons with disabilities specifically, highlighting their over-representation in the "furthest behind".

OPERA framework

July 2016

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"A guiding lens for CESR's national enforcement work, the OPERA framework allows an assessment that triangulates outcomes, policies and resources to provide a much fuller picture of what a state is doing to promote the realization of specific rights. Importantly, it traces economic and social deprivations and disparities back to the actions or omissions of the state, to make the case that they constitute an injustice and a violation of human rights."

Assessing fiscal policies from a human rights perspective

Center for Economic and Social Rights
July 2016

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"The study undertaken by the Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR) and the Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales (ICEFI) aimed to contribute to a broader reflection on the role of fiscal policy in complying with a state’s economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR) obligations. Despite being a middle-income country with the largest economy in Central America, Guatemala’s social indicators were alarming; with more than half the population living below the national poverty line and one in seven Guatemalans living in extreme poverty. The persistence of systemic inequality and discrimination could be partially explained by the legacy of almost 40 years of armed conflict, which did not end until the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996. Nevertheless, the stark contrasts between rich and poor suggested that the dismal state of ESC rights could not be attributed to limited state resources, but to the way in which they were distributed, this highlighted the need to hold the state accountable for its efforts to generate and manage resources equitably and in accordance with its human rights obligations.... Methodological case study on the use of available resources to realize economic, social and cultural rights in Guatemala

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