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Social relationships, mental health and wellbeing in physical disability: a systematic review

TOUGH, Hannah,
SIEGRIST, Johannes,
FEKETE, Christine
May 2017

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The aim of this study is to systematically review quantitative studies exploring associations of social relationships with mental health and wellbeing in persons with physical disabilities. The objective is to summarise a complex and heterogeneous body of empirical research on the association of different social relationship constructs with mental health and wellbeing in physical disability and to highlight conceptual and methodological deficiencies in the field of research. The literature search included original articles published in English between January 1, 1995 and May 31, 2016. Data was extracted on study and participants’ characteristics, independent and dependent variables, used measures and effects sizes of associations between social relationships and mental health or wellbeing. A narrative review was performed to synthesise findings along the constructs social support, social networks, negative social interactions, family functioning and relationship quality.  Of the 63 included studies, 47 were cross-sectional and 16 longitudinal.

BMC Public Health (2017) 17:414 

DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4308-6

Being disabled in Britain: a journey less equal

EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
April 2017

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"Being disabled in Britain is a review into disability inequality in Great Britain. It builds on the Equality and Human Rights Commission’s statutory five-yearly report on equality and human rights progress in England, Scotland and Wales, Is Britain Fairer?.

We want this report to be used by UK and devolved governments to make improvements to law and policies, by local government to ensure services meet the needs of disabled people, and by disability groups to strengthen their case for change.

The report includes chapters on six areas of life, including education, work, health, justice and participation in politics, looking at where there has been progress and where there are still serious issues to be tackled. It also looks the experiences of those with different impairments and how these impact on people’s life chances"

Guatemala National Disability Study ENDIS 2016 Report

DONICIO Carlos,
GRECH Shaun,
Islay MACTAGGART ,
Jonathan NABER,
Dr Ana Rafaela SALAZAR DE BARRIOS,
Gonna ROTA,,
Sarah POLLACK
April 2017

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The Guatemala National Disability Study (ENDIS 2016) was undertaken to address a need for up to date reliable data on disability in Guatemala.

Through a population based survey:

* To estimate the national disability prevalence among adults and children in Guatemala, and to provide regional estimates for 5 broad regions

* To disaggregate the prevalence of disability in Guatemala by age, sex, type of functional limitation and socio-economic status

* To explore the impact of disability on: poverty, quality of life, participation, health and opportunities to go to school and to work amongst children and adults respectively

Through a qualitative study:

* To explore cultural, ideological, and social interpretations and responses to disability; provide insight into the disability and poverty relationship; and examine social, political, and economic dimensions operating within this relationship.

The Rehabilitation Management System: Evaluating and planning physical rehabilitation services

PRYOR, Wesley,
SMITH, Fleur
April 2017

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Ensuring quality and affordable rehabilitation services to anyone in need is at the heart of Handicap International mandate and strategy. The organisation is implementing physical rehabilitation projects in 40 countries,  The Rehabilitation Management System was initially developed to allow for more effective and reliable analysis of the quality of rehabilitation services in low resource countries. It draws on international standards, consensus and evidence and it is made of a set of scorecards that are used to monitor key components of management and support service planning. The initial instrument went through several participatory revisions and has been now implemented by Handicap International partners for about 6 years. While it covers domains that are specific to rehabilitation services, it is aligned to the broader health system strengthening framework. It is currently used in around 14 physical rehabilitation centers in 8 countries where settings and governance systems considerably vary, reflecting the different stages of development of physical rehabilitation services worldwide.

The “Rehabilitation Management System: Evaluating and planning Physical Rehabilitation services” guide follows the revision of the RMS scorecards, as a response to the demand from partner organisations, programmes and the Handicap International’s Rehabilitation Technical Unit for a greater adaptability of the system. It is hoped that this guide will further assist partners and programmes in implementing the RMS in effective and strategic management of their services in order to provide the highest quality care in the most sustainable manner.

Leaving no-one behind: using assistive technology to enhance community living for people with intellectual disability

OWUOR, John,
LARKIN, Fiona,
MacLACHLAN, Malcolm
April 2017

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The transformation of community care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) through enhanced access to assistive technology (AT) is discussed. The problems associated with lack of access to AT and the extent to which these occur are reported. Issues in lack of AT provision, including lack of global standards, are discussed. A call to action is made with reference to the appropriate parts of CRPD.   

 

 

Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 12:5, 426-428

DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2017.1312572 

Normality and disability: intersections among norms, law, and culture

GOGGIN, Gerald,
STEELE, Linda,
CADWALLADER, Jessica
April 2017

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The central aim of this anthology of papers is to consider the place of law in political, social, scientific and biomedical developments relating to disability and other categories of ‘abnormality’. The papers consider how categories of abnormality relate to the privileged and frequently unmarked position of ‘normality’ and how legal interventions in abnormality relate to existing normative designations in the dominant cultural imaginary. This collection of papers has a range of disciplinary approaches

Paper titles:

  • Fit or fitting in: deciding against normal when reproducing the future
  • Eccentricity: the case for undermining legal categories of disability and normalcy
  • Eugenics and the normal body: the role of visual images and intelligence testing in framing the treatment of people with disabilities in the early twentieth century
  • The construction of access: the eugenic precedent of the Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Disability and torture: exception, epistemology and ‘black sites’
  • Mental capacity and states of exception: revisiting disability law with Giorgio Agamben
  • Not just language: an analysis of discursive constructions of disability in sentencing remarks
  • Policing normalcy: sexual violence against women offenders with disability
  • ‘The government is the cause of the disease and we are stuck with the symptoms’: deinstitutionalisation, mental health advocacy and police shootings in 1990s Victoria
  • Disruptive, dangerous and disturbing: the ‘challenge’ of behaviour in the construction of normalcy and vulnerability
  • Making the abject: problem-solving courts, addiction, mental illness and impairment
  • Cripwashing: the abortion debates at the crossroads of gender and disability in the Spanish media
  • ‘Figurehead’ hate crime cases: developing a framework for understanding and exposing the ‘problem’ with ‘disability’

Continuum 

Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 337-340

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2017.1275077

Better understanding of youth mental health

The Lancet
April 2017

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Mental health issues are the leading cause of disability in adolescents aged 15–19 years in all the world's regions, contributing 45% of their overall burden of disease. Early intervention to prevent mental health disorders is crucial to suicide prevention and to improve lifelong wellbeing. In April 2017, Mission Australia, in association with the Black Dog Institute (a research institute based in New South Wales) published the 5th Youth Mental Health Report. A survey of 21 000 Australian adolescents recorded 22·8% of young Australians meeting the criteria for probable serious mental illness (PSMI), as assessed by the Kessler 6 measure of non-specific psychological distress. Adolescent girls were almost twice as likely than boys to meet the criteria for PSMI. A significantly higher proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander responders met the criteria for PSMI (31·6%)  than non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31140-6

Vol. 389, No. 10080, p1670, 29 April 2017

 

Autism spectrum disorders

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION
April 2017

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This fact sheet provides key facts and an overview about autism spectrum disorders. Associated epidemiology, causes, assessment and management, social and economic impacts are briefly covered. The human rights of people with ASD are discussed and the WHO Resolution on autism spectrum disorders (WHA67.8) is introduced.

CRPD Course (with an emphasis on how users and survivors of psychiatry can use the CRPD to advance our human rights)

Tina Minkowitz
March 2017

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The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a watershed in the human rights of users and survivors of psychiatry. This course is offered with an emphasis on how users and survivors of psychiatry can use the CRPD to advance human rights of persons with disabilities.

 

The Convention of course guarantees the rights of all persons with disabilities, in all their diversity.  Major constituencies organized at the international level included the World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry, World Federation of the Deaf, World Blind Union, World Federation of the Deafblind, Inclusion International (persons with intellectual disabilities and their families), International Federation of Hard of Hearing Persons, and Disabled Peoples’ International (cross-disability).  They organized all disabled people’s organizations and allies into the International Disability Caucus, and aimed for the Convention to be equally relevant to all persons with disabilities irrespective of the type of disability or geographical location.  Every constituency finds what it needs in the text, and the Convention can be approached from a number of different starting points to uncover its potential.

 

The course is taught by Tina Minkowitz, Esq., a human rights lawyer and survivor of psychiatry who was instrumental in developing the relevant provisions.  She represented the World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry (WNUSP) in the drafting and negotiation of the CRPD, and subsequently founded the Center for the Human Rights of Users and Survivors of Psychiatry (CHRUSP).

Gender equality and disability inclusion within water, sanitation and hygiene: exploring integrated approaches to addressing inequality

WATERAID ,
CBM AUSTRALIA,
KILSBY, Di
et al
March 2017

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WaterAid, in collaboration with CBM Australia and Di Kilsby consulting have published a paper to examine the linkages, common approaches and learning in both areas. Today we launch a Discussion Paper ‘Integrating gender equality and disability inclusion in water, sanitation and hygiene: exploring integrated approaches to addressing inequality’. 

The discussion paper explores: 
• How the water, sanitation and hygiene sector can continue to improve practice on gender and disability
• How an integrated approach to the two intersectional issues of gender and disability help us to ‘do development better’

The discussion paper provides reflections on applying integrated gender and disability approaches to rights- based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs in Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea.  
The paper is intended as a conversation starter for WASH program managers and other development practitioners looking to strengthen their conceptual and practical understanding of challenges and successes in integrating gender and disability in WASH and those looking to move towards more transformative and sustainable practice.

Evaluation of disability-inclusive development at UNDP

INDEPENDENT EVALUATION OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
March 2017

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The Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) presents its evaluation of disability-inclusive development at the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This work was carried out in 2016 and analyses UNDP’s contribution to disability-inclusive development during the period 2008-2016, which corresponds to the current and past UNDP strategic plans, and to the period within which the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been in force. The work of UNDP was considered through the four key principles of the CRPD, namely nondiscrimination, participation and inclusion, accessibility and accountability. Eleven country office visits were made and 337 people interviewed. Key findings (24) are provided, conclusions made and future strategic planning put forward.

 

Report available in summary (32 p) or in full. Video also available (51 min).

Disability in the EU SDGs indicators: Ensuring that no one is left behind

EUROPEAN DISABILITY FORUM (EDF)
March 2017

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The European Disability Forum (EDF) presents this position paper in response to the draft report of EUROSTAT on the European Union (EU) – Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) indicators circulated on 21st March to civil society organisations. The 2030 Agenda adopted by the United Nations in New York has 11 references to persons with disabilities and the SDGs have 19 references, including the technical ask to disaggregate data by disability.

However, EUROSTAT has overlooked persons with disabilities in its latest indicators draft. Now there is an opportunity to ensure this gap is filled and for the EU to include disability related indicators in line with the 2030 Agenda and the UN Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (UN CRPD).

The European Commission (EC) has a legal obligation under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities. The EC is also legally bound to ensure that persons with disabilities enjoy full equality under the law. EUROSTAT has also the technical capacity to measure the inclusion of persons with disabilities in its approach to the SDGs, and in this paper we outline why and how this could be done. Here are four guiding recommendations: 

  • The systematic disaggregation of data by disability
  • The insertion of the SDGs disability indicators in the EU SDGs indicators
  • The provision of leadership from the EU in the application of the obligations under the UN CRPD in the context of the SDGs 
  • The participation of persons with disabilities throughout the process

Factsheet. Maternal health and rehabilitation

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL;
March 2017

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Maternal health concerns the health and wellbeing of mothers from before pregnancy (pre-conception), during pregnancy (ante-natal), during and after childbirth (peri- and post-natal). Common impairments and activity limitations from obstetric fistulae, pelvic floor dysfunction, maternal depression and musculoskeletal disorders are outlined and examples of rehabilitation strategies are given. A case study of fistula in Burundi is reported.

Child health and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Child health encompasses physical, mental and social well-being of children under the age of five. The leading causes of under-five deaths are pre-term birth complications, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, diarrhoea and malaria. Malnutrition contributes to nearly half of all under-five deaths. All these conditions contribute hugely to child impairments too. Common impairments and activity limitations related to child health including birth defects, cerebral palsy, developmental delays, burns, falls and injuries and road traffic injuries are outlined and different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are given. A case study of cerebral palsy in Haiti is cited. 

Diabetes and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Diabetes is the 9th most common cause of years lived with disability. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This causes an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyper glycaemia). There are three types - Type 1, Type 2 and gestational. Common impairments and activity limitations are reported including: neuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; retinopathy; kidney complications; stroke and depression. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are provided. A case study of diabetes in the Philippines is cited.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and rehabilitation. Factsheet

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. Most commonly this includes coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke) or raised blood pressure (hypertension). A stroke occurs when a blood clot (ischaemia) or a bleed (haemorrhage) disrupts the blood supply to part of the brain, starving that area of oxygen. Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability. Common impairments and activity limitations from cardiovascular diseases are hemiplegia, word forming difficulties and slurring of speech, cognitive function, depression, sensory loss and shortness of breath. Different examples of rehabilitation in the care continuum are given. A case study of stroke in Nepal is provided. 

HIV & AIDS and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that makes the immune system collapse, making a person totally defenceless to infections. A person living with HIV may experience episodic and/or chronic impairments. These may result from illness and/or from treatment side effects, in particular: general fatigue and weight loss; neurological disorders; mental and cognitive disorders such as dementia; and joint and muscle problems. Different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are given. A case study in India is provided.
 

Human rights: a reality for all - Council of Europe Disability Strategy 2017-2023 (2017)

THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE
March 2017

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The overall goal of the Council of Europe Disability Strategy (2017-2023) is to achieve equality, dignity and equal opportunities for persons with disabilities in specific areas where the Council of Europe can make an input. In order to ensure independence, freedom of choice, full and active participation in all areas of life and society, the strategy highlights work and activities required in five priority areas:

1. Equality and non-discrimination

2. Awareness raising

3. Accessibility

4. Equal recognition before the law

5. Freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse

The strategy also proposes action targeting five cross-cutting themes: participation, co-operation and co-ordination, universal design and reasonable accommodation, gender equality perspective, multiple discrimination and education and training. 

A study on the equal recognition before the law - Contribution towards the Council of Europe strategy on the rights of persons with disabilities (2017)

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND
March 2017

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This study aims to identify ways and means of implementation of Article 121 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) which affirms the right to equal recognition before the law. It represents a paradigm shift to identifying persons with disabilities as subjects with legal rights. There are 4 parts. Firstly, the scope of the obligations contained in Article 12 is analysed. Secondly, the approaches taken by various member States of the Council of Europe to comply with Article 12 of the CPRD by way of law reform and shifts in policies and practices are surveyed. Good practice examples from member States are then provided to demonstrate approaches which show potential for fuller alignment with Article 12.  Finally, a recommended set of measures is set out to provide guidance to member States on how best to reform their legal architecture in accordance with the requirements of Article 12.

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