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Mental health assessments in refugees and asylum seekers: evaluation of a tablet-assisted screening software

MORINA, Naser
et al
October 2017

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Mental health problems resulting from persecution and forced migration are very common among refugees and asylum seekers and evolve into a major public health challenge. Language barriers often prevent timely access to appropriate health care, leading to chronic trajectories and abortive social integration. Tools for multilingual screening and assessment could be of great benefit for this particularly vulnerable population as well as for policy makers. This study aimed at testing the reliability, feasibility and usability of the Multi-Adaptive Psychological Screening Software (MAPSS), a newly developed Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Software (ACASI) for touchscreen devices, for screening purposes in a clinical setting. In a randomized cross-over design including both MAPSS and paper-pencil clinician-administered interviews, 30 treatment-seeking refugees completed clinical measures and a feasibility questionnaire to rate the user interface of MAPSS. Five professionals performed given tasks in MAPSS and completed usability questionnaires for the administration interface.

Conflict and Health 2017 11:18

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-017-0120-2

Central African Republic: People with disabilities at high risk - 4 years into conflict, more support, protection needed

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
June 2017

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People with disabilities in the Central African Republic have faced violent attacks, forced displacement, and ongoing neglect in the humanitarian response, Human Rights Watch said today. A peace accord signed on June 19, 2017, offers a chance to help this abused and marginalized group.

People with disabilities face high risk from violent attacks and forced displacement and are being neglected by aid groups as conflict in the Central African Republic intensifies.

New Human Rights Watch research in the country shows that people with a range of disabilities are often unable to flee violence, are especially vulnerable to attack while trying to flee, and face unsafe and unhealthy conditions in displacement camps.

This video and blog page report on the problems faced by people with disabilities as conflict in the Central African Republic intensifies. People with a range of disabilities are often unable to flee violence, are especially vulnerable to attack while trying to flee, and face unsafe and unhealthy conditions in displacement camps.

Immigration and disability / Review of disability studies - Vol 13, No 2

THE REVIEW OF DISABILITY STUDIES
June 2017

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The latest issue of the Review of Disability Studies is out! Dive into this issues' topics ranging for Disability Studies in Physical Recreation, Social Participation of Children, Immigrants in Australia, Anxiety as a Tool for Critical Disability Studies, Film Genre and Mental Illness and much more.

Mental health and trauma in asylum seekers landing in Sicily in 2015: a descriptive study of neglected invisible wounds

CREPET, Anna,
RITA, Francesco,
REID, Anthony
et al
January 2017

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Abstract

 

Background

 

In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily. This study documents mental health conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties experienced by asylum seekers in the MSF programme in 2014–15.

 

Methods

 

All asylum seekers transiting the 15 MSF-supported centres were invited to a psycho-educational session. A team of psychologists and cultural mediators then provided assessment and care for those identified with MH conditions. Potentially traumatic events experienced before and during the journey, as well as post-migratory living difficulties, were recorded. All those diagnosed with MH conditions from October 2014 to December 2015 were included in the study.

 

Results

 

Among 385 individuals who presented themselves for a MH screening during the study period, 193 (50%) were identified and diagnosed with MH conditions. Most were young, West African males who had left their home-countries more than a year prior to arrival. The most common MH conditions were post traumatic stress disorder (31%) and depression (20%). Potentially traumatic events were experienced frequently in the home country (60%) and during migration (89%). Being in a combat situation or at risk of death, having witnessed violence or death and having been in detention were the main traumas. Lack of activities, worries about home, loneliness and fear of being sent home were the main difficulties at the AS centres.

 

Conclusion

 

MH conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties are commonly experienced by recently-arrived ASs, this study suggests that mental health and psychosocial support and improved living circumstances should be integrated into European medical and social services provided by authorities in order to fulfil their humanitarian responsibility and reduce the burden of assimilation on receiving countries.

 

Keywords

 

Immigration Asylum seekers Refugee Mental health Italy Europe Traumatic event Operational research

Mental health and trauma in asylum seekers landing in Sicily in 2015: a descriptive study of neglected invisible wounds

CREPET, Anna,
RITA, Francesco,
REID, Anthony
et al
January 2017

Expand view

While the medical conditions of newly migrated asylum seekers to Sicily were being addressed, the mental health of those who may have experienced trauma before, during, or after their migration was not addressed. "Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily. This study documents mental health conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties experienced by asylum seekers in the MSF programme in 2014–15." 

Ageing in the twenty-first century : a celebration and a challenge

UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNPF),
HELP AGE INTERNATIONAL
2012

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"This report, a collaborative effort of the United Nations and other major international organizations working in the area of population ageing, sheds light on progress towards implementing this Plan. It aims to raise awareness about the speed of population ageing and, more generally, about the experience of being old in our changing world. It recommends moving urgently to incorporate ageing issues into national development plans and poverty reduction strategies. It also shows that abuse, neglect and violence against older persons are much more prevalent than currently acknowledged, and points the way towards more effective prevention strategies and stronger legislation that can protect their human rights"

The feasibility of a universal pension in Belize

KNOX-VYDMANOV, Charles
June 2011

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"This study assesses the feasibility of putting in place a universal pension in Belize. The report is structured into five sections. Section one looks at the situation of older people in Belize today in terms of demographics, health, work and poverty. Section two considers the adequacy of the existing social security system, assessing coverage and, in particular, the effectiveness of the NCP in reaching the poorest older people. Following on from this analysis, section three outlines the rationale for a universal pension in Belize, both in terms of the pension system, and the impacts it would have on reducing the poverty of older people, their families and Belizean society as a whole. Section four then assesses the affordability of a universal pension, and section five considers key issues to take into account in implementation"

Making a living last longer : insights into older people's livelihood strategies

ERB, Susan
2011

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This research report explores the challenges faced by older people in securing a sustainable livelihood in four countries. The research found that older people face significant barriers in achieving livelihood security due to lack of regular, predictable and sufficient cash income such as non-contributory pensions. Gender, destitution, and emergency preparedness emerged as cross-cutting issues that affect older people’s livelihood challenges regardless of location. The research also found that older people have only limited access to microfinance institutions (MFIs) and banks, and therefore to credit and savings facilities. It concludes by highlighting key guiding principles for governments, community-based organisations, NGOs, MFIs and others working to support older people to achieve greater livelihood security

Achieving income security in old age for all Tanzanians : a study into the feasibility of a universal social pension

DANIEL, Smart
et al
May 2010

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"This report summarises the findings of an investigation into the feasibility of achieving universal access to old age income security through a social pension in Tanzania." The feasibility study provides an analysis of the cost, fiscal sustainability and financing options for a universal pension and concludes that introducing income security payments for all older Tanzanians is likely to significantly reduce old age poverty

Securing our common future : why investing in reducing age based vulnerabilities is necessary in the global economic crisis : background issues paper

BEALES, Sylvia
September 2009

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"This paper argues that comprehensive age friendly social policy responses to both the financial crisis and to demographic transition are necessary and affordable, and that a focus on investment in the health, livelihoods and economic security of the older poor for the benefit of future generations is more urgent than ever"

Uganda demographic health survey 2006

UGANDA BUREAU OF STATISTICS (UBOS),
MACRO INTERNATIONAL INC
August 2007

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The 2006 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 8,531 women age 15-49 years and 2,503 men age 15-54 years and is the first such survey to cover the entire country. The primary purpose of the UDHS is to furnish policymakers and planners with detailed information on fertility; family planning; infant, child, adult, and maternal mortality; maternal and child health; nutrition; and knowledge of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. In addition, in one in three households selected for the survey, women age 15-49, men age 15-54, and children under age 5 years were weighed and their height was measured to assess their nutritional status. Women, men, and children age 6-59 months, in this subset of households were also tested for anemia, and in addition the women and children were tested for vitamin A deficiency. In addition to the main report, the key findings, a preliminary report, a wall chart and fact sheet are also available online

Support by migrants to their elderly parents in rural Cambodia and Thailand : a comparative study

ZIMMER, Zachary
et al
2007

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Internal migration in South East Asia raises questions about strains upon traditional systems of support for older adults. While remittances to parents’ households play a role in rural household economies, uncertainty remains regarding whether and under what circumstances children interact with their elderly parents. This paper focuses on the adult children of older persons living in rural Cambodia and Thailand and examines the determinants of personal visits, monetary remittances and more general forms of household support. Analyses considers ways in which geographically distant children support parents, the extent to which characteristics of parents, children and households enhance or detract from these inter-generational interactions, and how determinants of inter-generational interaction vary between the two countries. Comparisons between countries of conditions and characteristics of families provide insights into how social, economic, and cultural forces motivate provision of support to aging parents

Global age-friendly cities : a guide

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2007

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Informed by WHO's approach to active ageing, the purpose of this guide is to engage cities to become more age-friendly so as to tap the potential that older people represent for humanity. An age-friendly city encourages active ageing by optimising opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance the quality of life of older people. Working with groups on 33 cities in all WHO regions, WHO asked older people in focus groups to describe the advantages and barriers they experience in 8 areas of city living. The results from these led to the development of a set of age-friendly city checklists

National fact sheet India (provisional data) : 2005-2006 National family health survey (NFHSIII)

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR POPULATION SCIENCES, MUMBAI
2007

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This fact sheet presents provisional information on key indicators and trends at a national level from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the third in the NFHS series of surveys. The survey provides information on population, health and nutrition in India and each of its 29 states, based on a sample of households which is representative at national and state levels. NFHS-3 provides trend data on key indicators and includes information on several new topics, such as HIV/AIDS-related behaviour and the health of slum populations. For the first time, NFHS-3 also provides information on men and unmarried women. In addition, HIV prevalence is measured at the national level and for selected states. The NFHS-3 fieldwork was conducted by 18 Research Organisations between December 2005 and August 2006

Policy lessons of the East Asian demographic transition

MCNICOLL, Geoffrey
2006

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The usual lessons drawn from East Asia's striking experience of health and fertility transition concern the efficacy of well-designed government programmes catering to an existing or ideationally stimulated demand. An alternative interpretation sees the demographic change and the uptake of services as a byproduct of social and economic development together with, in some cases, strong government pressures. This paper probes more deeply into this experience, seeking to identify common features of development design and administration that underlay it and to derive lessons for policies elsewhere. The broad sequence entailed, initially, establishment of an effective, typically authoritarian, system of local administration, providing (sometimes incidentally) a framework for promotion and service delivery in health, education, and family planning. Subsequent economic liberalization offered new opportunities for upward mobility and greater risks of backsliding but along with erosion of social capital and the breakdown or privatization of service programmes. The study is mainly focused on seven countries: Taiwan and South Korea ("tiger" economies), Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia ("second wave" countries), and China and Vietnam ("market-Leninist" economies). The period is roughly from the 1960s to the 1990s

Active life expectancy and functional limitations among older Cambodians : results from a 2004 survey

ZIMMER, Zachary
August 2005

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'This study's aims are to: (1) determine the prevalence of functional limitations among older adults in Cambodia using activities of daily living (ADLs); (2) compare limitation prevalence with other countries in the region; (3) estimate active life expectancy; (4) examine standard correlates of functional status and assess whether they are associated with limitation in expected ways. ADLs included here are bathing, dressing, eating, and getting up from lying down. Degree of difficulty is used to determine whether limitations are moderate or severe. Results are generally consistent with expectations. For example, women live longer than men but spend a greater proportion of life with limitations, and older age is related to higher rates of limitation and less active life. Elderly Cambodians appear more likely to report limitations than their counterparts in neighboring countries. A contribution of the analysis is the examination of a basic measure of health among a population that until recently has been isolated from the rest of the world.'

The state of world population 2005. The promise of equality : gender equity, reproductive health and the Millennium Development Goals

UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
2005

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This edition of UNFPA's annual report explores the extent to which the world is meeting the targets outlined in the Millennium Development Goals. It assesses progress, examines shortfalls and provides examples of interventions that have resulted in improvements in the lives of individuals, in families and countries. It highlights the importance of women's education, access to reproductive health services and stopping gender-based violence

Age and security : how social pensions can deliver effective aid to poor older people and their families. Summary report

HELPAGE INTERNATIONAL
2004

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This is a summary of a report published by HelpAge International, which highlights the benefits of non-contributory pensions for older people. Social pension schemes (either universal or means tested) are in place in a number of developing countries, including Senegal, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, Bangladesh and India and the evidence shows that they are effective means of ensuring that basic material needs are met. The report argues that social pensions will: help achieve the Millennium Development Goals; contribute to the human rights agenda; effectively target aid at minimum cost and improve the life chances of orphans and vulnerable children

How high is infant mortality in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS?

ALESHINA, Nadezhda,
REDMOND, Gerry
November 2003

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Official statistics seem to suggest that in post-communist Europe infant mortality rates have significantly decreased through the 1990s. As infant mortality rate is a key indicator of the Millennium Development Goals, reliable measurement is crucial to assess progress. This paper argues that official counts may understate the gravity of the problem in at least 15 countries in the region. This may be due to unclear definitions of 'live birth' and 'stillbirth', misreporting of infant deaths, nonregistration of births or deaths. The paper also discusses the uncertainties associated with survey based estimates, and call for further work to be done to improve collection of data and effectiveness of surveys

Missing..... mapping the adverse child sex ratio in India

OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL AND CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIA (ORGCC),
MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE (MoHFW),
UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
June 2003

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This publication provides data and maps illustrating the adverse sex ratio in four states in India (Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Gujarat), where there are less than 900 girls for 1000 boys

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