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Disability and HIV

UNAIDS
August 2017

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This report highlights existing key evidence on the relationship between disability and HIV. It discusses the concrete steps needed for a person-centred, disability-inclusive HIV response that allows for increased participation of people with disabilities and integrates rehabilitation within the continuum of HIV care. Globally, it is estimated that 1 billion people (15% of the world’s population) have a disability. Of those aged over 15 years, approximately 110–190 million (2.2–3.8%) experience significant disabilities. Disability is increasing in prevalence due to ageing populations, trauma, accidents and the increase in chronic health conditions, including HIV. Persistent discrimination against and exclusion of people with disabilities, in particular women and girls with disabilities, increases their vulnerability, including their risk of HIV infection.
 

HIV & AIDS and rehabilitation. Factsheet.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
March 2017

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The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that makes the immune system collapse, making a person totally defenceless to infections. A person living with HIV may experience episodic and/or chronic impairments. These may result from illness and/or from treatment side effects, in particular: general fatigue and weight loss; neurological disorders; mental and cognitive disorders such as dementia; and joint and muscle problems. Different examples of rehabilitation across the care cycle are given. A case study in India is provided.
 

Prevalence of HIV infection among people with disabilities : a population-based observational study in Yaounde, Cameroon (HandiVIH)

DE BEAUDROP, Pierre
et al
January 2017

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In the HandiVIH study, an estimation and a comparison of HIV prevalence and associated risk factors between people with and without disabilities. In this cross-sectional, population-based, observational study, two-phase random sampling was used to recruit adults with disabilities and a control group matched for age, sex, and residential location from households of the general population. The Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability was used to identify people with disabilities. An HIV test was administrated and a life-course history interview carried out with participants. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV among participants with and without disabilities. The study took place in Yaoundé, Cameroon, between Oct 2, 2014, and Nov 30, 2015. 

The Lancet HIV · January 2017 

DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30209-0

How rehabilitation can help people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa : an evidence-informed tool for rehab providers

Canadian Working Group on HIV and Rehabilitation,
University of Toronto,
University of Zambia
March 2015

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The aim of this e-module (or pdf) is to enhance knowledge about HIV care among rehabilitation providers in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to help address the needs of people living with HIV. The resource is divided into 5 sections: the role of rehabilitation in the context of HIV in SSA; what rehabilitation providers need to know about HIV in SSA; rehabilitation interventions that can help people living with HIV in SSA; what rehabilitation providers need to know about caring for children and youth living with HIV in SSA; concepts and tools for measuring rehabilitation outcomes in HIV in SSA. This current resource is a comprehensive adaptation of the 2014 Canadian e-Module for rehabilitation providers in Sub-Saharan Africa which was developed from "A Comprehensive Guide for the Care of Persons with HIV Disease (Module 7)", published by Health Canada and the Wellesley Central Hospital, Toronto, Canada, published in 1998.

Strengthening communities to integrate persons with disabilities in the HIV and AIDS response in Rwanda

DELEU, Marijke
May 2013

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"This document aims to capture some of the key lessons learned from Handicap International’s New Partnership Initiative project in Rwanda, which started in 2008 with the objective to integrate persons with disabilities in HIV and Sexual Violence (SV) prevention efforts and service provision generally. It is the result of qualitative, multi-stakeholder study about how change occurred within the project and how the experience could be modelled for adaptation or replication in Rwanda or other contexts"
SD/LL 08

Differences in HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners in Nigeria

ADEEMI, Toyin,
PILLAY, Basil,
ESTERRHUIZEN, Tonya
February 2013

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"This study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments"
Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 16

Inclusive and integrated HIV and AIDS programming : promoting universal access for all

MAC-SEING, Muriel
July 2012

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"This policy paper describes Handicap International’s mandate and values in operational terms as applied to the theme of inclusive and integrated HIV and AIDS programming. It presents the approaches and references for Handicap International’s actions, choices and commitments. It aims to ensure coherence in terms of practices whilst taking into account different contexts. Essentially this is a guidance document for programme staff which defines the topic and outlines the target populations, methods of intervention (expected results, activities) and indicators for monitoring and evaluation. This policy aims to ensure that all projects carried out by Handicap International programmes are consistent with the methods of intervention presented"
PP 07

IDDC policy briefing on HIV and AIDS and disability

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM HIV AND AIDS AND DISABILITY TASK GROUP
June 2012

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This policy brief presents information highlighting that persons with disabilities are at equal or higher risk of HIV infection than the rest of the community for the following reasons: poor access to information on sexual and reproductive health and HIV&AIDS; poor access to health care, including HIV&AIDS services; poverty and marginalisation; and high rates of sexual abuse and exploitation. Recommended actions are provided to increase the participation of persons with disabilities in the HIV response and ensure they have access to HIV services

Inclusive and integrated HIV and AIDS programming

MAC-SEING, Muriel
March 2012

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"This policy brief is an introduction to Handicap International’s 2012 Policy Paper "Inclusive and integrated HIV and AIDS programming". Handicap International promotes an inclusive approach to improving quality of life and access to services for persons with disabilities. This means that basic health care and socioeconomic services are developed according to the principle of Universal Access, where all people with impairments (whether physical, sensory, intellectual or mental), have equal access and opportunities for participation. This inclusive approach also ensures that gender considerations and disparities are acknowledged as a cross-cutting issue"
Policy brief No 7

World AIDS day 2012

ALAM, Mohammed Khorshed
2012

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This factsheet presents information about HIV and AIDS and ten related goals for 2015
The user has given permission for the uploaded document to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

UNAIDS strategy for integrating disability into AIDS programmes

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2012

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The purpose of this report is to "increases awareness of the structural barriers that people with disabilities experience in accessing good-quality services. The strategy promotes broad action to achieve universal access to HIV prevention for people with disabilities through full integration into all aspects of the HIV response"
Issues brief JC2362

Disability networking zone at the community village

HEALTH ECONOMICS AND HIV/AIDS RESEARCH DIVISION (HEARD)
et al
December 2011

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This meeting agenda provides links to presentations from the disability networking zone at the community village event of the International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA). The theme of the event was a sustainable inclusive HIV response for universal access
Disability Networking Zone at the International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA)
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
4-8 December 2011

Training of trainers manual on disability-inclusive HIV services and disability-inclusive sexual and reproductive health for health workers

ADEREMI, Toyin Janet
September 2011

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This training of trainers manual has been designed as a guide for providers of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to ensure services are disability-inclusive. This training is divided in 5 parts: Part 1 - Introduction; Part 2 - Disability awareness and disability inclusion; Part 3 - Disability-inclusive HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services; Part 4 - Disability-inclusive sexual and reproductive health services; Part 5 - Disability-inclusive HIV prevention integrated into sexual and reproductive health services. This manual is useful for anyone interested in trainings on disability-inclusive HIV services and disability-inclusive sexual and reproductive health for health workers
Note: the manual is available to download in three parts using the links provided

Rehabilitation : a crucial component in the future of HIV care and support

NIXON, Stephanie
et al
June 2011

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"Provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not an end in itself but a means to achieving improved wellness for people living with HIV. Rehabilitation, broadly defined, is another key contributor to wellness within this context. Understanding the potential for rehabilitation requires that one is able to consider HIV not only within a biomedical model that focuses on body systems, diagnoses and symptoms, but also within a rehabilitation framework that focuses on how these diagnoses and symptoms affect people’s lives more broadly. Furthermore, rehabilitation is a human rights imperative, which deserves the energetic attention enjoyed by other aspects of HIV treatment and care. In particular, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) is shining a long-overdue spotlight on the human rights imperatives associated with disability. For South Africa and other countries, proactively and meaningfully engaging rehabilitation in the HIV response will require major shifts on several fronts, including practice, education, policy and research. We argue that in settings where ART delivery is now widespread, HIV should be understood not only as a medical issue, but as a rehabilitation and disability concern. Whereas medicine adds years to life, it is rehabilitation that aims to add life to years"
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, Vol 12, No 2

HIV and AIDS strategy for older people

HELPAGE INTERNATIONAL
2011

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This resource presents an HIV and AIDS strategy for older people. The impact of HIV and AIDS on older people and the challenges for older carers are described. Recommendations are provided for HIV and AIDS prevention, care and support, and treatment strategies for older people

The challenge of HIV : social stigma or disability?

MCTIGUE, Peter
November 2010

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"The nature of discrimination against people living with HIV and with AIDS ('PLHA') is rooted in deeper stigmatisation than discrimination against other groups. Reasons for this include the association of HIV/AIDS with behaviours that may be considered socially unacceptable by many people. To combat such discrimination, HIV is deemed to be a 'disability' under the Equality Act 2010. Whilst this protection has been welcomed by various activists and policy groups within the field, it will be argued that the decision to classify HIV as a disability is an inadequate response to the unique and multi-faceted discrimination faced by PLHA. To achieve this this article will examine the history of the virus; current epidemiology within the UK; the extent to which HIV accords with traditional models of disability and the definition employed by the Equality Act 2010; and finally, the manner in which HIV is socially constructed and how this has compounded discrimination against PLHA"
5 Web JCLI

Access to HIV/AIDS and sexual violence protection services among women and men with hearing, visual and physical impairments in Battambang and Kampong Cham provinces of Cambodia

MAC-SEING, Muriel
August 2010

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"This article presents the findings of a study on access to HIV prevention and sexual violence protection services among persons with disabilities in Cambodia, based on a gender and cross-impairment analysis. The results show obvious discrepancies between women and men of different impairments in regards to their level of HIV knowledge and risks to sexual violence, in particular among women with disabilities. Furthermore, local services providers revealed their lack of awareness on disability issues and capacity in providing accessible services to them. Ways forward in addressing the rights of women and men with disabilities, as well as gaps in services delivery will have to be addressed in concerted manners at political, societal and community levels"

Left out twice : living with HIV/AIDS and disabilities

BARRIGA, Santhu Rau
July 2010

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This article documents the experiences and prejudices which women with HIV and Aids and disabilities face. These include the risk of sexual violence to disabled women, and the difficulty in persuading partners to consent to safe sex. The article concludes with suggestions as to how the link between HIV and disability can be better researched and funded. This article would be of interest to those who are interested in HIV and disability

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